IGNOU MBA SOlved Assignment 2012 MBA solved assignment

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MS-01 Management Functions and Behavior Download View
MS-02 Management of Human Resources Download View
MS-03 Economic and Social Environment Download View
MS-05 Management of Machines & Materials Download View
MS-06 Marketing for Managers Download View
MS-07 Information System for Managers Download View
MS-08 Quantitative Analysis for Managerial Applications Download View
MS-10 Organization Design, Development and Change Download View
MS-11 Strategic Management Download View
MS-21 Social Processes and Behavioral Issues Download View
MS-43 Management Control Systems Download View
MS-53 Production/Operations Management Download View
MS-91 Advanced Strategic Management Download View

IGNOU BCA SOlved Assignment 2012 BCA solved assignment

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BCSL-021 C Language Programming Download View
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MCS-011 Problem Solving and Programming Download View
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CS-63 Introduction to System Software Download View
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IGNOU MBA MS-07 Free Solved Assignment 2012

Course Code              :           MS -07

Course Title               :           InformationSystem for Managers   

Assignment Code      :           MS-07/TMA/SEM- 1/2012

Coverage                    :           AllBlocks



Q1.What are the main types of software?What are the advantages of open-source software? Describe the decision makingprocess of acquiring application software.

Solution: Main Types of Software

Programming Software: This is one ofthe most commonly known and popularly used types of computer software. Thesesoftware come in the form of tools that assist a programmer in writing computerprograms. Computer programs are sets of logical instructions that make acomputer system perform certain tasks. The tools that help programmers ininstructing a computer system include text editors, compilers and interpreters.Compilers translate source code written in a programming language into thelanguage which a computer understands (mostly the binary form).

System Software: It helps in runningcomputer hardware and the computer system. System software refers to theoperating systems; device drivers, servers, windowing systems and utilities.System software helps an application programmer in abstracting away fromhardware, memory and other internal complexities of a computer. An operatingsystem provides users with a platform to execute high-level programs. Firmwareand BIOS provide the means to operate hardware.

Application Software: It enables theend users to accomplish certain specific tasks. Business software, databasesand educational software are some forms of application software. Different wordprocessors, which are dedicated to specialized tasks to be performed by theuser, are other examples of application software.

Malware: Malware refers to anymalicious software and is a broader category of software that is a threat tocomputer security. Adware, spyware, computer viruses, worms, trojan horses andscareware are malware. Computer viruses are malicious programs which replicatethemselves and spread from one computer to another over the network or theInternet..

Adware: Adware is software with the meansof which advertisements are played and downloaded to a computer.Programmers design adware as their tool to generate revenue. They do extractuser information like the websites he visits frequently and the pages he likes.Advertisements that appear as pop-ups on your screen are the result of adwareprograms tracking you. But adware is not harmful to computer security or userprivacy. The data it collects is only for the purpose of inviting user clickson advertisements.

Inventory Management Software: Thistype of software helps an organization in tracking its goods and materials onthe basis of quality as well as quantity. Warehouse inventory managementfunctions encompass the internal warehouse movements and storage. Inventorysoftware helps a company in organizing inventory and optimizing the flow ofgoods in the organization, thus leading to improved customer service.

Utility Software: Also known as serviceroutine, utility software helps in the management of computer hardware andapplication software. It performs a small range of tasks. Disk defragmenters,systems utilities and virus scanners are some of the typical examples ofutility software.

Data Backup and Recovery Software: Anideal data backup and recovery software provides functionalities beyond simplecopying of data files. This software often supports user needs of specifyingwhat is to be backed up and when. Backup and recovery software preserve theoriginal organization of files and allow an easy retrieval of the backed updata.


Advantages of open source software

Usually, thefirst perceived advantage of open source models is the fact that open sourcesoftware is made available gratis or at a low cost. But this characteristic isnot exclusive to open source software, and several proprietary softwareproducts are made available in similar ways (a prominent case could beMicrosoft’s Internet Explorer). What really distinguishes open source softwarefrom software available without fee is the combination of effects due to thecharacteristics discussed in section 3.1. All of them combined produce asynergistic impact which is the cause of the real advantages of the open sourcemodel. Let us provide some more detail on how do these characteristics turninto advantages

The right toredistribute modifications and improvements to the code, and to reuse otheropen source code, permits all the advantages due to the modifiability of thesoftware to be shared by large communities. This is usually the point thatdifferentiates open source software licences from “nearly free” ones. Insubstance, the fact that redistribution rights cannot be revoked, and that theyare universal, is what attracts a substantial crowd of developers to workaround open source software projects.

The right touse the software in any way. This, combined with redistribution rights, ensures(if the software is useful enough), a large population of users, which helps inturn to build up a market for support and customization of the software, which canonly attract more and more developers to work in the project. This in turnhelps to improve the quality of the product, and to improve its functionality.Which, once more, will cause more and more users to give the product a try, andprobably to use it regularly.

The decision making process ofacquiring Application Software

Applications are made available in line with businessrequirements. This process covers the design of the applications, the properinclusion of application controls and security requirements, and thedevelopment and configuration in line with standards. This allows organisationsto properly support business operations with the correct automatedapplications.


Controlover the IT process of Acquireand maintain application software that satisfies the businessrequirement for IT of aligningavailable applications with business requirements, and doing so in a timelymanner and at a reasonable cost by focusing on ensuring that there is a timely andcost-effective development process is achieved by:

  • Translating business requirements into design specifications
  • Adhering to development standards for all modifications
  • Separating development, testing and operational activities

and ismeasured by

  • Number of production problems per application causing visible downtime
  • Percent of users satisfied with the functionality delivered





Q2.“In the end, information system isrecognized only as a foundation for human judgment, insight and inventiveness”.Discuss. What are different types of controls and audits required for aninformation system?

Solution: Information system, anintegrated set of components for collecting, storing, processing, andcommunicating information. Business firms, other organizations, and individualsin contemporary society rely on information systems to manage their operations,compete in the marketplace, supply services, and augment personal lives. Forinstance, modern corporations rely on computerized information systems toprocess financial accounts and manage human resources; municipal governmentsrely on information systems to provide basic services to its citizens; andindividuals use information systems to study, shop, bank, and invest.

Information systems controls

To ensuresecure and efficient operation of information systems, an organizationinstitutes a set of procedures and technological measures called controls.Information systems are safeguarded through a combination of general andapplication controls.

Generalcontrols apply to information system activities throughout an organization. Themost important general controls are the measures that control access tocomputer systems and the information stored there or transmitted overtelecommunications networks. General controls include administrative measuresthat restrict employee access to only those processes directly relevant totheir duties. As a result, these controls limit the damage that any individual employeeor employee impersonator can do. Fault-tolerant computer systems installed incritical environments, such as in hospital information systems or securitiesmarketplaces, are designed to control and isolate problems so that the systemcan continue to function.

Applicationcontrols are specific to a given application and include such measures asvalidating input data, regularly archiving copies of various databases, andensuring that information is disseminated only to authorized users.

Theeffectiveness of an information system’s controls is evaluated through aninformation systems audit. It is a part of a more general financial audit thatverifies an organization’s accounting records and financial statements.Information systems are designed so that every financial transaction can betraced. In other words, an audit trail must exist that can establish where eachtransaction originated and how it was processed. Aside from financial audits,operational audits are used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency ofinformation systems operations.


Q3.What is computerized maintenance management? Explain the conceptualmodel through which the maintenance function can achieve its objectives on asustained basis.

Solution: Computerized maintenancemanagement system (CMMS) is also known as enterprise asset management andcomputerized maintenance management information system (CMMIS). A CMMS softwarepackage maintains a computer database of information about an organization’smaintenance operations, i.e. CMMIS – computerized maintenance managementinformation system. This information is intended to help maintenance workers dotheir jobs more effectively (for example, determining which machines requiremaintenance and which storerooms contain the spare parts they need) and to helpmanagement make informed decisions (for example, calculating the cost ofmachine breakdown repair versus preventive maintenance for each machine,possibly leading to better allocation of resources). CMMS data may also be usedto verify regulatory compliance.

CMMSpackages may be used by any organization that must perform maintenance onequipment, assets and property. Some CMMS products focus on particular industrysectors (e.g. the maintenance of vehicle fleets or health care facilities).Other products aim to be more general.

CMMSpackages can produce status reports and documents giving details or summariesof maintenance activities. The more sophisticated the package, the moreanalysis facilities are available.

Many CMMSpackages can be either web-based, meaning they are hosted by the companyselling the product on an outside server, or LAN based, meaning that thecompany buying the software hosts the product on their own server.


The conceptual model throughwhich the maintenance function can achieve its objectives on a sustained basisare used to manage simple or complex facilities, from a single building to acomplete campus. They can also be used to manage the maintenance program for agrouping of equipment such as a fleet of vehicles. The systems are veryversatile since most are in modular form for the various maintenance functionsand can be customized to fit the particular application. Whatever system or setof modules are selected for use, careful consideration needs to be given toFunctional Requirements and a sound deployment plan. The CMMS must meet theneeds, constraints, and opportunities of the business and be implemented in away that users will welcome the technology and have a vision for the benefitsit brings. Proper configuration, testing, and training cannot be overemphasized when bringing a new CMMS or upgrading an existing system to anorganization.



Q4.“Excel is a versatile spreadsheetpackage. It can do wonder for accountants”. Explain.

Solution: Excel spreadsheets are themost common and indispensable tool used by accountants, enabling them toanalyse, report and share financial information. Much of this can beaccomplished using only a fraction of the wealth of functions and optionswithin the Excel program. Basic arithmetic, the SUM() function and some cellborder formatting will let you produce useful models and perform some quitecomplex calculations. By expanding your knowledge with just a few otherfunctions, Excel can become a much more versatile tool. Very occasionally Exceldoes not contain a function that you may expect, and it is necessary to combineother functions to perform tasks such as calculating weighted averages.Accountants have a professional responsibility to present accurate data. TheIF() and TEXT() functions are essential for incorporating error checkingmessages to demonstrate that the spreadsheet models have been reconciled andare performing properly. A spreadsheet presentation gives reports a degree ofunearned credibility. This is frequently ill-deserved and research shows that ahigh proportion of large models contain critical errors. Your spreadsheets mustbe well designed and thoroughly checked If you wish to be selective with yourdata and only perform calculations on items that meet certain criteria, bothDatabase and Array functions are useful, but SUMPRODUCT() is the most versatileand wonderful alternative. It is able to extract all sorts of values from atable of data and can be used as an alternative to a great many functions.

Graphs are agreat way to present information, but keep them simple. Don’t get carried awaywith 3D formats which can make it difficult to read important axis values. Ifyou update a chart on a regular basis, you are very likely to occasionallyforget to manually alter any titles which contain period information. It isbest to link chart titles to cell contents which can be automatically updated.

A popular,modern Financial Management technique is that of balanced scorecards whichoften incorporate traffic light indicators. Conditional formatting for cellranges is not only useful for highlighting exceptional or incorrect values butcan be used to automatically colour cells to show good or bad performance.


In order toreport on tables of data with separate columns or rows for each accountingperiod, the OFFSET() function lets you select data for any single or cumulativeperiod.


There arenumerous financial functions for performing interest and investmentcalculations. These can greatly simplify the long formulae previously requiredfor things such as loan repayments – but always beware. The built in functionsmay perform differently to your own (textbook) formulas. They may invert thesign and show negative results where you expect positive; they may use a baseperiod of p0 where you assume it is p1. Once you have tested the financialfunctions using a variety of situations and confirmed the results, they maketasks such as calculating the Net Present Value much easier. Finally, it isalways helpful to make your models friendly to other users. Protecting orrestricting the values that can be placed in cells will prevent unforeseenerrors. Drop down boxes are a splendid way of getting values from users andhyperlinks can guide them around your models. By incorporating dates andfilenames in default headers and footers, anyone can trace the source of yourmasterpiece.



Q5. What do you understand by ArtificialIntelligence? What are the factors that highlighted the need of developing AI?What are the goals of AI. 

Solution: Artificial intelligence (AI)is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims tocreate it. While there are many different definitions, AI textbooks define thefield as “the study and design of intelligent agents. where an intelligentagent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions thatmaximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.

The fieldwas founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—thesapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulatedby a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind andthe ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed bymyth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism,[8] but hasalso suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of thetechnology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficultproblems in computer science.

AI researchis highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that oftenfail in the task of communicating with each other Subfields have grown uparound particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, and thesolution of specific problems, resulting in longstanding differences of opinionabout how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools. Thecentral problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning,learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulateobjects. General intelligence (or “strong AI”) is still among thefield’s long term goals.

Goals of AI:

Thelong-term goals of AI include finding out what the world is like, understandingit, and changing it, or, in other words,

a.empiricalstudy and modelling of existing intelligent systems (mainly human beings);

b.theoreticalanalysis and exploration of possible intelligent systems and possiblemechanisms and representations usable by such systems; and

c.solvingpractical problems in the light of (a) and (b), namely:

c.1.attemptingto deal with problems of existing intelligent systems (e.g., problems of humanlearning or emotional difficulties) and

c.2.designinguseful new intelligent or semi intelligent machines.

Some peoplerestrict the term `artificial intelligence’ to a subset of this wide-rangingdiscipline. For example, those who think of it as essentially a branch ofengineering restrict it to (c.2). This does not do justice to the full range ofwork done in the name of AI.

In any case,it is folly to try to produce engineering solutions without either studyinggeneral underlying principles or investigating the existing intelligent systemson which the new machines are to be modelled or with which they will have tointeract. Trying to build intelligent systems without trying to understandgeneral principles would be like trying to build an aeroplane withoutunderstanding principles of mechanics or aerodynamics. Trying to build themwithout studying how people or other animals work would be like trying to buildmachines without ever studying the properties of any naturally occurringobject.

The need tostudy general principles of thought, and the ways in which human beingsperceive, think, understand language, etc., means that AI work has to be donein close collaboration with work in psychology, linguistics, and evenphilosophy, the discipline that examines some of the most generalpresuppositions of our thought and language. The term `cognitive science’ canalso be used to cover the full range of goals specified above, though it too isambiguous, and some of its more narrow-minded practitioners tend to restrict itto (a) and (c.1).


IGNOU MBA MS-06 Solved Assignments 2012

Course Code                 :        MS – 6

Course Title                  :        Marketing for Managers

Assignment Code                    :        MS-6/TMA/SEM – I /2012

Coverage                       :        All Blocks

Q1.a) Explain the concept of Marketing and substantiate the significance in modernorganization in accomplishment of their objectives.

Solution:- The termmarketing has changed and evolved over a period of time, today marketing isbased around providing continual benefits to the customer, these benefits willbe provided and a transactional exchange will take place.

The CharteredInstitute of Marketing define marketing as ‘Themanagement process responsible for identifying , anticipating and satisfyingcustomer requirements profitably’

If we look at thisdefinition in more detail Marketing is a management responsibility and shouldnot be solely left to junior members of staff. Marketing requires co-ordination,planning, implementation of campaigns and a competent manager(s) with theappropriate skills to ensure success.

Marketingobjectives, goals and targets have to be monitored and met, competitorstrategies analysed, anticipated and exceeded. Through effective use of marketand marketing research an organisation should be able to identify the needs andwants of the customer and try to delivers benefits that will enhance or add tothe customers lifestyle, while at the same time ensuring that the satisfactionof these needs results in a healthy turnover for the organisation.

Philip Kotlerdefines marketing as ‘satisfyingneeds and wants through an exchange process’

Within this exchangetransaction customers will only exchange what they value (money) if they feelthat their needs are being fully satisfied, clearly the greater the benefitprovided the higher transactional value an organisation can charge.

P.Tailor ofwww.learnmarketing.net suggests that ‘Marketing is not about providingproducts or services it is essentially about providing changing benefits to thechanging needs and demands of the customer (P.Tailor 7/00)’


Concepts of marketing:

Once you’ve developedyour marketing strategy, there is a “Seven P Formula” you should useto continually evaluate and reevaluate your business activities. These sevenare: product, price, promotion, place, packaging, positioning and people. Asproducts, markets, customers and needs change rapidly, you must continuallyrevisit these seven Ps to make sure you’re on track and achieving the maximumresults possible for you in today’s marketplace.



To begin with, develop thehabit of looking at your product as though you were an outside marketingconsultant brought in to help your company decide whether or not it’s in theright business at this time. Ask critical questions such as, “Is yourcurrent product or service, or mix of products and services, appropriate andsuitable for the market and the customers of today?”

Whenever you’re havingdifficulty selling as much of your products or services as you’d like, you needto develop the habit of assessing your business honestly and asking, “Arethese the right products or services for our customers today?”

Is there any product orservice you’re offering today that, knowing what you now know, you would notbring out again today? Compared to your competitors, is your product or servicesuperior in some significant way to anything else available? If so, what is it?If not, could you develop an area of superiority? Should you be offering thisproduct or service at all in the current marketplace?




The second P in theformula is price. Develop the habit of continually examining and reexaminingthe prices of the products and services you sell to make sure they’re stillappropriate to the realities of the current market. Sometimes you need to loweryour prices. At other times, it may be appropriate to raise your prices. Manycompanies have found that the profitability of certain products or services doesn’tjustify the amount of effort and resources that go into producing them. Byraising their prices, they may lose a percentage of their customers, but theremaining percentage generates a profit on every sale. Could this beappropriate for you?


Sometimesyou need to change your terms and conditions of sale. Sometimes, by spreadingyour price over a series of months or years, you can sell far more than you aretoday, and the interest you can charge will more than make up for the delay incash receipts. Sometimes you can combine products and services together withspecial offers and special promotions. Sometimes you can include freeadditional items that cost you very little to produce but make your pricesappear far more attractive to your customers.

In business,as in nature, whenever you experience resistance or frustration in any part ofyour sales or marketing activities, be open to revisiting that area. Be open tothe possibility that your current pricing structure is not ideal for thecurrent market. Be open to the need to revise your prices, if necessary, toremain competitive, to survive and thrive in a fast-changing marketplace.


The thirdhabit in marketing and sales is to think in terms of promotion all the time.Promotion includes all the ways you tell your customers about your products orservices and how you then market and sell to them.

Smallchanges in the way you promote and sell your products can lead to dramaticchanges in your results. Even small changes in your advertising can leadimmediately to higher sales. Experienced copywriters can often increase theresponse rate from advertising by 500 percent by simply changing the headlineon an advertisement.

Large andsmall companies in every industry continually experiment with different ways ofadvertising, promoting, and selling their products and services. And here isthe rule: Whatever method of marketing and sales you’re using today will,sooner or later, stop working. Sometimes it will stop working for reasons youknow, and sometimes it will be for reasons you don’t know. In either case, yourmethods of marketing and sales will eventually stop working, and you’ll have todevelop new sales, marketing and advertising approaches, offerings, andstrategies.


The fourthP in the marketing mix is the place where your product or service is actuallysold. Develop the habit of reviewing and reflecting upon the exact locationwhere the customer meets the salesperson. Sometimes a change in place can leadto a rapid increase in sales.

You cansell your product in many different places. Some companies use direct selling,sending their salespeople out to personally meet and talk with the prospect.Some sell by telemarketing. Some sell through catalogs or mail order. Some sellat trade shows or in retail establishments. Some sell in joint ventures withother similar products or services. Some companies use manufacturers’representatives or distributors. Many companies use a combination of one ormore of these methods.

In eachcase, the entrepreneur must make the right choice about the very best locationor place for the customer to receive essential buying information on theproduct or service needed to make a buying decision. What is yours? In what wayshould you change it? Where else could you offer your products or services?


The fifthelement in the marketing mix is the packaging. Develop the habit of standingback and looking at every visual element in the packaging of your product orservice through the eyes of a critical prospect. Remember, people from theirfirst impression about you within the first 30 seconds of seeing you or someelement of your company. Small improvements in the packaging or externalappearance of your product or service can often lead to completely differentreactions from your customers.

Withregard to the packaging of your company, your product or service, you shouldthink in terms of everything that the customer sees from the first moment ofcontact with your company all the way through the purchasing process.

Packagingrefers to the way your product or service appears from the outside. Packagingalso refers to your people and how they dress and groom. It refers to youroffices, your waiting rooms, your brochures, your correspondence and everysingle visual element about your company. Everything counts. Everything helpsor hurts. Everything affects your customer’s confidence about dealing with you.

When IBMstarted under the guidance of Thomas J. Watson, Sr., he very early concludedthat fully 99 percent of the visual contact a customer would have with hiscompany, at least initially, would be represented by IBM salespeople. BecauseIBM was selling relatively sophisticated high-tech equipment, Watson knewcustomers would have to have a high level of confidence in the credibility ofthe salesperson. He therefore instituted a dress and grooming code that becamean inflexible set of rules and regulations within IBM.

As aresult, every salesperson was required to look like a professional in everyrespect. Every element of their clothing-including dark suits, dark ties, whiteshirts, conservative hairstyles, shined shoes, clean fingernails-and everyother feature gave off the message of professionalism and competence. One ofthe highest compliments a person could receive was, “You look like someonefrom IBM.”


The next Pis positioning. You should develop the habit of thinking continually about howyou are positioned in the hearts and minds of your customers. How do peoplethink and talk about you when you’re not present? How do people think and talkabout your company? What positioning do you have in your market, in terms ofthe specific words people use when they describe you and your offerings toothers?

In the famous book by Al Reis and JackTrout, Positioning, theauthors point out that how you are seen and thought about by your customers isthe critical determinant of your success in a competitive marketplace.Attribution theory says that most customers think of you in terms of a singleattribute, either positive or negative. Sometimes it’s “service.”Sometimes it’s “excellence.” Sometimes it’s “qualityengineering,” as with Mercedes Benz. Sometimes it’s “the ultimatedriving machine,” as with BMW. In every case, how deeply entrenched thatattribute is in the minds of your customers and prospective customersdetermines how readily they’ll buy your product or service and how much they’llpay.

Developthe habit of thinking about how you could improve your positioning. Begin bydetermining the position you’d like to have. If you could create the idealimpression in the hearts and minds of your customers, what would it be? Whatwould you have to do in every customer interaction to get your customers tothink and talk about in that specific way? What changes do you need to make inthe way interact with customers today in order to be seen as the very bestchoice for your customers of tomorrow?


The finalP of the marketing mix is people. Develop the habit of thinking in terms of thepeople inside and outside of your business who are responsible for everyelement of your sales and marketing strategy and activities.It’s amazing howmany entrepreneurs and businesspeople will work extremely hard to think throughevery element of the marketing strategy and the marketing mix, and then paylittle attention to the fact that every single decision and policy has to becarried out by a specific person, in a specific way. Your ability to select,recruit, hire and retain the proper people, with the skills and abilities to dothe job you need to have done, is more important than everything else puttogether.

In his best-selling book, Good to Great, Jim Collinsdiscovered the most important factor applied by the best companies was thatthey first of all “got the right people on the bus, and the wrong peopleoff the bus.” Once these companies had hired the right people, the secondstep was to “get the right people in the right seats on the bus.”Tobe successful in business, you must develop the habit of thinking in terms ofexactly who is going to carry out each task and responsibility. In many cases,it’s not possible to move forward until you can attract and put the rightperson into the right position. Many of the best business plans ever developedsit on shelves today because the [people who created them] could not find thekey people who could execute those plans.




Q1.b) What is STP strategy? Discuss the concept of positioning by taking anexample of your   choice and the benefits that firms accrue in acompetitive environment.

Solution: A marketingstrategy is the planning and deployment methods used to obtain customers for anorganization. The marketing strategy involves segmenting and targeting whichmarkets will be most beneficial to an organization and then marketing to thosemarkets. The marketing strategy involves the planning of company positioning aswell.




STP  is a short form of- Segmenting, Targeting,Positioning.



Segmenting a market helps acompany target its products / solutions better to its customers. It is astrategic approach midway between mass marketing and individual marketing.Segmentation is based on the concept that customers in a specific segment havesimilar needs, purchasing power, geographic location, etc.

A market can be segmentedaccording to customer needs. For example, car manufacturers can segment the carmarket into two broad segments: basic cars and luxury cars. They can haveseparate product lines for each segment. For example, for the luxury carsegment, Toyota has the Lexus product line, Honda has Acura, and Nissan hasInfiniti.



Targeting is a process ofprioritizing target segments based on the firm’s core competencies orcapabilities, and other researched factors including segmented market size,growth potential of the segmented market, competitive dynamics, etc.

Unless the target segment ischosen based on considerable market research and careful planning, a company’sproduct / solution will not be able to capture the intended market share in thetarget segment. So, targeting is key, because businesses battle for marketshare in these target segments.



Thisinvolves developing a marketing mix for each targeted segment. One way to thinkof a marketing mix is using the 4P’s framework.  Another way to look at positioning is articulating the value ofthe company’s products / solutions vis-à-vis customer needs, competitiveproducts, etc. Product data sheets, hot sheets, beat sheets, cheat sheets,white papers help articulate this value tactically.



Discussion of positioning:-

he term “positioning” is widely used within the marketing andadvertising communities today, and its meaning has expanded beyond the narrow definitionsof Trout and Ries. Positioning is often used nowadays as a broad synonym formarketing strategy. However, the terms “positioning” and “marketing strategy”should not be used interchangeably. Rather, positioning should be thought of asan element of strategy, a component of strategy, not as the strategy itself.

The term “positioning” is, and should be, intimately connected tothe concept of “target market.” That is, a brand’s positioning defines thetarget audience. For example, an airline could position itself against otherairlines, which defines the target audience as airline travelers. Or, it couldposition itself against all modes of transportation between two destinations,which then defines the target audience as all travelers between those twomarkets. The second positioning reaches out to a much larger target audience.Another example: a brand of peanut butter could position itself against allcompeting brands of peanut butter, which defines the audience as peanut butterusers. Or, the brand could position itself against margarine and butter, whichdefines a very different target market. Positioning, then, is analogous toaiming an artillery field gun. How you position the cannon defines who and whatthe target is. So, the term “aiming” is not a bad definition of positioning,and the term “targeting” is not a bad definition of positioning.

The positioning possibilities that exist for any given brand orservice are almost infinite in number. Some commonly used positioningstrategies are:

  • Positioning against a broader market; for example, positioning a bicycle brand as a substitute for the automobile, rather than as a substitute for other brands of bicycles.
  • Positioning against a price segment of the market; for example, positioning a car brand against luxury imported cars.
  • Positioning against a usage segment of the market; for instance, positioning a brand of cooking oil as the very best brand of oil for frying chicken.
  • Positioning against a geographic segment of a market; for example, positioning Ford trucks as made for driving conditions in Texas.
  • Positioning against a psychographic segment of the market; as an example, positioning the Volvo as the car for drivers who are primarily concerned about safety.
  • Positioning against a channel of distribution, a season of the year, a particular type of weather, a human fear, etc.

Again, positioning possibilities are almost limitless for anygiven brand and can be defined in many different ways. The correct positioningof a brand is basic and fundamental to its success; an incorrect or suboptimalpositioning can doom a brand to underperformance or failure. So, how does onearrive at an optimal positioning for a given brand? The search for an optimalpositioning begins in the mind of the consumer, and it is here that we mustturn to marketing research for help.





Positioning is defined aspositioning “brands clearly in target customers’ minds” (Kotler 215).Brand can be positioned at any of three levels: product attributes, desirable benefit,and beliefs and values. There is a Domino’s Pizza commercial (1985)successfully positioning the brand at the desirable benefit level.

First, the ads basically emphasizes only 2outstanding advantages of Domino’s Pizza. First, the ads tells us that Dominopromises that every pizza delivered will be fresh because they do not startmaking pizza until customers call to order (“our hands do not move untilyou tell them to”). It is a great product attribute since not every othercompetitors have so many local stores to secure the high quality of every pizzaas Domino, of which there are 9000 stores around the world.

Second, the ads promises a desirable benefit:delivery in 30 minutes. It is not a product attribute but a service associatedto its products. By this better positioning, the brand, Domino’s Pizza, isassosciated with quick delivery beside high quality in customers’ minds.Calling delicious pizza without going out of home and enjoying pizza within 30minutes are really the product and service customers are seeking for. Dominopositions its brand very successful in customers’ minds.




Q2. a) What do you understand bythe term concept of PLC? Discuss taking any two   examples of your choice in the recentpart.
Solution: Concept:-

Product Life Cycle (PLC)is a term used to describe individual stages in the life of a product. Productlife cycle is an important aspect of conducting business which affectsstrategic planning. Product life cycle can be divided into several stagescharacterized by the revenue generated by the product.

What is thefundamental idea behind productlife cycle?

Productlife cycle is very similar to a life. A living being is first born(introduction). Then it grows through its youth (growth) to become an adult(maturity). When it gets old, it declines both mentally and physically(decline), after which it eventually dies.

An analogyto this process can be observed in production as well. First, a product isbeing developed. After we know what it is that we are selling and what thecustomer wants, we introduce it to the market. As our product becomes known byconsumers, it grows until it establishes a solid position in the market. Atthis point, our product is mature. After a period of time, the product isovertaken by development and the introduction of superior competitors. Then itgoes into decline and is eventually withdrawn. All these phases together arecalled product life cycle.

Whatis the official definition of a product life cycle?

Businessstrategy and performance is affected to a great degree by life cycle stages ofa product or service. Business priorities, budgeting, funding, production,distribution, marketing — all these production aspects change depending on howlong a product or a service has been in the market.

The product life cycle method identifies the four(five) distinct stages affecting sales of a product, from the product’sinception until its retirement.

Introduction Phase

Theintroduction phase is when the public first sees or hears about a product. Theproduct appears in stores for the first time, and people start seeing print andtelevision ads. During this phase, a company may choose one of two pricingstrategies. They may set prices high to recoup initial expenses that went intoproducing the product. For example, a cellphone manufacturer with newtechnology may introduce cell phones 10 percent to 20 percent above the pricesof most premium cell phones. They may price their phones higher because of thehype and anticipation of the new technology. The company also knows enoughpeople will pay the extra 10 to 20 percent for it to earn substantial profits.Contrarily, the same cellphone company may introduce a cell phone with basicfeatures at reduced prices in hopes of gaining lots of new customers.

Growth Phase

Thegrowth phase is when sales and profits for the new product start rising. Acompany will usually keep product prices about the same during the growth stageto maximize earnings. Product quality is also maintained. However, a companywill usually expand its product distribution during the growth stage. Forexample, a consumer-products company might start selling its organic cereal innew markets, based on positive marketing research from consumers. Eventually,the organic cereal will start appearing in stores across the country. Companymarketers usually increase advertising during the growth phase, too, accordingto NetMBA.com.

Maturity Stage

Successinevitably leads to increased competition. Other companies eventually willstart introducing similar products, especially if the initial product is highlysuccessful. Consequently, the demand for the product and its competitors willpeak at some point. Sales growth will start to decline. Some companies maylower prices to capture additional market share or new customers. At thispoint, a company may need to develop new product features or services todifferentiate its products from the competition’s. For example, the companythat first introduced the product may enhance its customer-service departmentto establish itself as the service leader in the industry. The company’sstellar customer service may be the distinguishing element that spursadditional sales and customers. The company would then feature its superiorcustomer service in most of its advertising.

Decline Stage

Demandfor the product will eventually wane as newer technologies are introduced.Hence, companies can either maintain the product, sell it at heavily reducedprices or discontinue the product. A company that maintains the product maycontinue increasing sales by finding new uses for the product. For example, asoap manufacturer may discover through marketing research that restaurants andindustrial companies like the cleaning properties of its soap. Subsequently,the company would start selling its soap to both consumers and businesses. Thisstrategy could help extend the life of the product.





1. The car is manufactured at a production plant. Raw materials,recycled materials and components enter the factory at one end of the enormousbuilding. Completed cars are driven out of the opposite end and transported totheir owners.
2. The car is driven throughout its useful life time. During this time at maybe used for work, business and pleasure. It consumes petrol or diesel andpollutes the atmosphere. From time to time it needs servicing and repairing.
3. Eventually, after many years, it cannot be repaired any further and itbreaks down for the last time. This may be after ten years or more. Thedecision has to be taken regarding what to do next.
4. The car is taken to the scrap yard. Once upon a time this would have beenthe final resting place of most cars. It would have been stripped of usefulcomponents and left to rust.
5. Today the useful parts are still stripped from the car. This may include awide range of materials and components. These will include the alloy wheels,recyclable rubber, plastics and metals. These parts/materials will be sold onto companies that can reclaim the materials for further use. For example, therubber from the old types can be turned into granules and reused. Many of theplastics used in modern cars can be recycled in a similar way, turning oldplastic into granules that can be used to manufacture many modern products.
6. The reminder of the car is crushed into blocks. These are melted down inspecial furnaces, the waste is removed leaving the usable metal (normallysteel). The recycled metal can be used to manufacture new cars of otherproducts.


Example 2:-news paper.


When designing andmanufacturing a product it is important to consider its life cycle. Life cyclecovers the time from its manufacture to its recycling or disposal. A typicalproduct that has a relatively short life cycle is a newspaper / magazine.Everyone reads newspapers / magazines at some point in their lives and manyread a newspaper everyday. As the recycling of products becomes more popular itis important that we consider all the products we use, even the humblenewspaper, as a valuable resource even after its ‘useful life time’. The lifecycle of a simple newspaper is considered below.





It is commonsense to recycle as much reusable material as possible. Products made from recycled materials are usually cheaper than those made from newly processed materials. Recycling products is good for the environment and means that we are using less of the worlds resources.  
Recycling materials such as steel, copper, brass and other metals reduces pollution caused by the processing of new metals and it saves energy. It also means that the worlds valuable and irreplaceable materials will last longer. For example, it is estimated that in forty years the worlds reserves of copper ore will have run out. Copper is vital in much of the electrical equipment we use. Recycling used and discarded copper will extent the length of time copper is available. It will allow technologists time to find alternative materials capable of replacing copper.





Q2.(b) List out andexplain the three additional marketing mix element essentials in marketing  of services. Discus by taking any twoservices of your choice.

Ans:- Having discussed the characteristics of a service, let us now lookat the marketing mix of a service.

The servicemarketing mix comprises off the 7’p’s. These include:
• Product 
• Price
• Place
• Promotion

• People
• Process
• Physical evidence.

Lets now look at the remaining 3 p’s:


An essential ingredient to any service provision is the use ofappropriate staff and people. Recruiting the right staff and training themappropriately in the delivery of their service is essential if the organisationwants to obtain a form of competitive advantage. Consumers make judgments anddeliver perceptions of the service based on the employees they interact with.Staff should have the appropriate interpersonal skills, aptititude, and serviceknowledge to provide the service that consumers are paying for. Many Britishorganisations aim to apply for the Investors In People accreditation, whichtells consumers that staff are taken care off by the company and they aretrained to certain standards.


Refers to the systems used to assist the organisation indelivering the service. Imagine you walk into Burger King and you order aWhopper Meal and you get it delivered within 2 minutes. What was the processthat allowed you to obtain an efficient service delivery? Bank that send outCredit Cards automatically when their customers old one has expired again requirean efficient process to identify expiry dates and renewal. An efficient servicethat replaces old credit cards will foster consumer loyalty and confidence inthe company.

Physical Evidence

Where is the service being delivered?Physical Evidence is the element of the service mix which allows the consumeragain to make judgments on the organisation. If you walk into a restaurant yourexpectations are of a clean, friendly environment. On an aircraft if you travelfirst class you expect enough room to be able to lay down! Physical evidence is an essentialingredient of the service mix, consumers will make perceptions based on theirsight of the service provision which will have an impact on the organizationsperceptual plan of the service.

Services example -courier service

IF YOU  TAKE  ”COURIER  SERVICE”   AS  ANEXAMPLE THE  CUSTOMER  SATISFACTION / REPEAT  SALES HAPPENS,IF PEOPLE -people [ ability, competent, right  attitude] [the  people  should  have  right interpersonal skills/ communication skills / attitude/ability  to respond]


-product service [ features/benefits] [the  right range  of locations  coverage/ services   like
”urgent  delivery” / ”local  delivery ”/international delivery”]
-place [ flexibility][home  pick  up  service  /  24 hours  service ]
-price [ flexi] [ pricing  as  per  size /  weight /distance ]
-promotions [ selected  weighted  mix] [ contactable  on mobile / 24 hours  internet / yellow pages.]

[documentation / billing  is  simple / short /easy ]






3.     a) Discuss the role and importance ofphysical distribution in accomplishing the marketing   goals of a firm.


Ans- Physical distribution is the set of activitiesconcerned with efficient movement of finished goods from the end of theproduction operation to the consumer. Physical distribution takes place withinnumerous wholesaling and retailing distribution channels, and includes suchimportant decision areas as customer service, inventory control, materialshandling, protective packaging, order procession, transportation, warehousesite selection, and warehousing. Physical distribution is part of a largerprocess called “distribution,” which includes wholesale and retailmarketing, as well the physical movement of products



Physical distribution can be viewed as a system of componentslinked together for the efficient movement of products. Small business ownerscan ask the following questions in addressing these components:

  • Customer servicehat level of customer service should be provided?
  • Transportationow will the products be shipped?
  • Warehousinghere will the goods be located? How many warehousesshould be utilized?
  • Order processingow should the orders be handled?
  • Inventory controlow much inventory should be maintained at eachlocation?
  • Protective packaging and materials handlingow can efficientmethods be developed for handling goods in the factory, warehouse, andtransport terminals?

These components are interrelated: decisions made in one areaaffect the relative efficiency of others. For example, a small business thatprovides customized personal computers may transport finished products by airrather than by truck, as faster delivery times may allow lower inventory costs,which would more than offset the higher cost of air transport. Viewing physicaldistribution from a systems perspective can be the key to providing a definedlevel of customer service at the lowest possible cost.


Customer service is a precisely-defined standard of customersatisfaction which a small business owner intends to provide for its customers.For example, a customer service standard for the above-mentioned provider ofcustomized computers might be that 60 percent of all PCS reach the customerwithin 48 hours of ordering. It might further set a standard of delivering 90percent of all of its units within 72 hours, and all 100 percent of its unitswithin 96 hours. A physical distribution system is then set up to reach thisgoal at the lowest possible cost. In today’s fast-paced, technologicallyadvanced business environment, such systems often involve the use ofspecialized software that allows the owner to track inventory whilesimultaneously analyzing all the routes and transportation modes available todetermine the fastest, most cost-effective way to delivery goods on time.


The United States’ transportation system has long been agovernment-regulated industry, much like its telephone and electricalutilities. But in 1977 the deregulation of transportation began with theremoval of federal regulations for cargo air carriers not engaged in passengertransportation. The deregulation movement has since expanded in ways that havefundamentally altered the transportation landscape for small business owners,large conglomerates and, ultimately, the consumer.

Transportation costs are largely based on the rates charged bycarriers. There are two basic types of transportation rates: class andcommodity. The class rate, which is the higher of the two rates, is thestandard rate for every commodity moving between any two destinations. Thecommodity rate is sometimes called a special rate, since it is given bycarriers to shippers as a reward for either regular use or large-quantityshipments. Unfortunately, many small business owners do not have the volume ofshipping needed to take advantage of commodity rates. However, small businessesare increasingly utilizing a third type of rate that has emerged in recentyears. This rate is known as a negotiated or contract rate. Popularized in the1980s following transportation deregulation, contract rates allow a shipper andcarrier to negotiate a rate for a particular service, with the terms of the rate,service, and other variables finalized in a contract between the two parties.Transportation costs vary by mode of shipping, as discussed below.

TRUCKINGLEXIBLE AND GROWING The shipping method most favored bysmall business (and many large enterprises as well) is trucking. Carryingprimarily manufactured products (as opposed to bulk materials), trucks offerfast, frequent, and economic delivery to more destinations in the country thanany other mode. Trucks are particularly useful for short-distance shipments,and they offer relatively fast, consistent service for both large and smallshipments.

AIR FREIGHTAST BUT EXPENSIVE Because of the relatively high costof air transport, small businesses typically use air only for the movement ofvaluable or highly-perishable products. However, goods that qualify for thistreatment do represent a significant share of the small business market. Ownerscan sometimes offset the high cost of air transportation with reducedinventory-holding costs and the increased business that may accompany fastercustomer service.


There are two basic types of water carriers: inland or bargelines, and oceangoing deep-water ships. Barge lines are efficient transportersof bulky, low-unit-value commodities such as grain, gravel, lumber, sand, andsteel. Barge lines typically do not serve small businesses. Oceangoing ships,on the other hand, operate in the Great Lakes, transporting goods among portcities, and in international commerce. Sea shipments are an important part offoreign trade, and thus are of vital importance to small businesses seeking aninternational market share.

RAILROADSONG DISTANCE SHIPPING Railroads continue to present anefficient mode for the movement of bulky commodities over long distances. Thesecommodities include coal, chemicals, grain, non-metallic minerals, and lumberand wood products.


Pipelines are utilized to efficiently transport natural gas andoil products from mining sites to refineries and other destinations. Inaddition, so-called slurry pipelines transport products such as coal, which isground to a powder, mixed with water, and moved as a suspension through thepipes.

INTERMODAL SERVICES Small business owners often take advantage ofmulti-mode deals offered by shipping companies. Under these arrangements,business owners can utilize a given transportation mode in the section of thetrip in which it is most cost efficient, and use other modes for other segmentsof the transport. Overall costs are often significantly lower under thisarrangement than with single-mode transport.

Of vital importance to small businesses are transportersspecializing in small shipments. These include bus freight services, UnitedParcel Service, Federal Express, DHL International, the United States PostalService, and others. Since small businesses can be virtually paralyzed bytransportation strikes or other disruptions in small shipment service, manyowners choose to diversify to include numerous shippers, thus maintaining anestablished relationship with an alternate shipper should disruptions occur.Additionally, small businesses often rely on freight forwarders who act astransportation intermediaries: these firms consolidate shipments from numerouscustomers to provide lower rates than are available without consolidation.Freight forwarding not only provides cost savings to small businesses, itprovides entrepreneurial opportunities for start-up businesses as well.


Small business owners who require warehousing facilities mustdecide whether to maintain their own strategically located depot(s), or resortto holding their goods in public warehouses. And those entrepreneurs who gowith non-public warehousing must further decide between storage or distributionfacilities. A storage warehouse holds products for moderate to long-termperiods in an attempt to balance supply and demand for producers andpurchasers. They are most often used by small businesses whose products’ supplyand demand are seasonal. On the other hand, a distribution warehouse assemblesand redistributes products quickly, keeping them on the move as much aspossible. Many distribution warehouses physically store goods for fewer than 24hours before shipping them on to customers.

In contrast to the older, multi-story structures that dot citiesaround the country, modern warehouses are long, one-story buildings located insuburban and semi-rural settings where land costs are substantially less. Thesefacilities are often located so that their users have easy access to majorhighways or other transportation options. Single-story construction eliminatesthe need for installing and maintaining freight elevators, and foraccommodating floor load limits. Furthermore, the internal flow of stock runs astraight course rather than up and down multiple levels. The efficient movementof goods involves entry on one side of the building, central storage, anddeparture out the other end.

Computer technology for automating warehouses is dropping inprice, and thus is increasingly available for small business applications.Sophisticated software translates orders into bar codes and determines the mostefficient inventory picking sequence. Order information is keyboarded onlyonce, while labels, bills, and shipping documents are generated automatically.Information reaches hand-held scanners, which warehouse staff members use tofill orders. The advantages of automation include low inventory error rates andhigh processing speeds.


Inventory control can be a major component of a small businessphysical distribution system. Costs include funds invested in inventory,depreciation, and possible obsolescence of the goods. Experts agree that smallbusiness inventory costs have dropped dramatically due to deregulation of thetransportation industry.

Inventory control analysts have developed a number of techniqueswhich can help small businesses control inventory effectively. The most basicis the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model. This involves a trade-off betweenthe two fundamental components of an inventory control cost: inventory-carryingcost (which increases with the addition of more inventory), andorder-processing cost (which decreases as the quantity ordered increases).These two cost items are traded off in determining the optimal warehouseinventory quantity to maintain for each product. The EOQ point is the one atwhich total cost is minimized. By maintaining product inventories as close tothe EOQ point as possible, small business owners can minimize their inventorycosts.


The small business owner is concerned with order processingnotherphysical distribution functionecause it directly affects the ability to meetthe customer service standards defined by the owner. If the order processingsystem is efficient, the owner can avoid the costs of premium transportation orhigh inventory levels. Order processing varies by industry, but often consistsof four major activities: a credit check; recording of the sale, such ascrediting a sales representative’s commission account; making the appropriateaccounting entries; and locating the item, shipping, and adjusting inventoryrecords.

Technological innovations, such as increased use of the UniversalProduct Code, are contributing to greater efficiency in order processing. Barcode systems give small businesses the ability to route customer ordersefficiently and reduce the need for manual handling. The coded informationincludes all the data necessary to generate customer invoices, thus eliminatingthe need for repeated keypunching.

Another technological innovation affecting order processing isElectronic Data Interchange. EDI allows computers at two different locations toexchange business documents in machine-readable format, employingstrictly-defined industry standards. Purchase orders, invoices, remittanceslips, and the like are exchanged electronically, thereby eliminatingduplication of data entry, dramatic reductions in data entry errors, andincreased speed in procurement cycles.


Another important component of a small business physicaldistribution system is material handling. This comprises all of the activitiesassociated with moving products within a production facility, warehouse, andtransportation terminals. One important innovation is known asunitizingombining as many packages as possible into one load, preferably on apallet. Unitizing is accomplished with steel bands or shrink wrapping to holdthe unit in place. Advantages of this material handling methodology includereduced labor, rapid movement, and minimized damage and pilferage.

A second innovation is containerization. the combining of severalunitized loads into one box. Containers that are presented in this manner areoften unloaded in fewer than 24 hours, whereas the task could otherwise takedays or weeks. This speed allows small export businesses adequate deliveryschedules in competitive international markets. In-transit damage is alsoreduced because individual packages are not handled en route to the purchaser.






b) What are the majorpricing strategies available to the marketer? Discuss each of  them in terms of this merits and demerits. Whatpricing strategy would you support in  the following cases

i)                  Lowpriced Tablet Computer

ii)               CNGfitted small car


Solution:Major pricing strategies-There are three mainapproaches a business takes to setting price:

Cost-based pricing: price is determined by adding a profitelement on top of the cost of making the product.
Customer-based pricing: where prices are determined by what afirm believes customers will be prepared to pay
Competitor-based pricing: wherecompetitor prices are the main influence on the price set
Let’s take a brief look at each of these approaches;

Cost based pricing

This involves setting a price byadding a fixed amount orpercentage to the cost ofmaking or buying the product.  In some ways this is quite an old-fashionedand somewhat discredited pricing strategy, although it is still widelyused.

After all, customers are not too botheredwhat it cost to make the product –they are interested in what value the product provides them.

Cost-plus (or “mark-up”)pricing is widely used in retailing, where theretailer wants to know with some certainty what the gross profit margin of eachsale will be. An advantage of this approach is that the business will know thatits costs are being covered.  The main disadvantage is that cost-pluspricing may lead to products that are priced un-competitively.

Here is an example of cost-pluspricing, where a business wishes to ensure that it makes an additional £50 ofprofit on top of the unit cost of production.

Unit cost




Selling price


How high should the mark-uppercentage be? That largely depends on the normal competitive practice in amarket and also whether the resulting price is acceptable to customers.

In the UK a standard retailmark-up is 2.4 times the cost the retailer pays to its supplier (normally awholesaler).  So, if the wholesale cost of a product is £10 per unit, theretailer will look to sell it for 2.4x £10 = £24.  This is equal to atotal mark-up of £14 (i.e. the selling price of £24 less the bought cost of£10).

The main advantage of cost-basedpricing is that selling prices are relatively easy to calculate.  If themark-up percentage is applied consistently across product ranges, then thebusiness can also predict more reliably what the overall profit margin will be.

Customer-based pricing

Penetration pricing
You often see the tagline “special introductory offer” – the classic sign of penetration pricing.The aim of penetrationpricing is usually to increase market share of a product, providing the opportunity to increaseprice once this objective has been achieved.

Penetration pricing is thepricing technique of settinga relatively low initial entry price, usually lower than the intendedestablished price, to attract new customers. The strategy aims to encourage customers toswitch to the new product because of the lower price.

Penetration pricing is mostcommonly associated with a marketingobjective of increasingmarket share or sales volume.  In the short term, penetration pricing islikely to result in lower profits than would be the case if price were sethigher.  However, there are some significant benefits to long-termprofitability of having a higher market share, so the pricing strategy canoften be justified.

Penetration pricing is often usedto support the launch of a new product, and works best when a product enters amarket with relatively little product differentiation and where demand is priceelastic – so a lower price than rival products is a competitive weapon.

Price skimming
Skimming involves settinga high price before other competitors come into the market.  Thisis often used for the launch of a new product which faces little or nocompetition – usually due to some technological features.  Such productsare often bought by “earlyadopters” who areprepared to pay a higher price to have the latest or best product in themarket.

Good examples of price skimminginclude innovative electronic products, such as the Apple iPad and SonyPlayStation 3.
There are some other problems and challenges with this approach:

Price skimming as a strategycannot last for long, as competitors soon launch rival products which putpressure on the price (e.g. the launch of rival products to the iPhone oriPod).

Distribution (place) can also bea challenge for an innovative new product. It may be necessary to giveretailers higher margins to convince them to stock the product, reducing theimproved margins that can be delivered by price skimming.
A final problem is that by price skimming, a firm may slow down the volumegrowth of demand for the product.  This can give competitors more time todevelop alternative products ready for the time when market demand (measured involume) is strongest.

Loss leaders
The use of loss leaders is a method of sales promotion.  A loss leader isa product priced below cost-price in order to attract consumers into a shop oronline store. The purpose of making a product a loss leader is to encouragecustomers to make further purchases of profitable goods while they are in theshop.  But does this strategy work?

Pricing is a key competitiveweapon and a very flexible part of the marketing mix.

If a business undercuts itscompetitors on price, new customers may be attracted and existing customers maybecome more loyal. So, using a loss leader can help drive customer loyalty.

One risk of using a loss leaderis that customers may take the opportunity to “bulk-buy”.  If the pricediscount is sufficiently deep, then it makes sense for customers to buy as muchas they can (assuming the product is not perishable).

Using a loss leader isessentially a short-term pricing tactic for any one product.  Customerswill soon get used to the tactic, so it makes sense to change the loss leaderor its merchandising every so often.

Predatory pricing (note:this is illegal)
With predatory pricing, prices are deliberately set very low by a dominantcompetitor in the market in order to restrictor prevent competition.  The price set might even be free, orlead to losses by the predator.  Whatever the approach, predatory pricingis illegal under competition law.

Psychological pricing
Sometimes prices are set at what seem to be unusual price points.  Forexample, why are DVD’s priced at £12.99 or £14.99? The answer is the perceived price barriers that customers may have.  Theywill buy something for £9.99, but think that £10 is a little too much.  Soa price that is one pence lower can make the difference between closing thesale, or not!

The aim of psychological pricing is to make the customer believe theproduct is cheaper than it really is.  Pricing in this way is intended toattract customers who are looking for “value”.

Competitor-based pricing

If there is strong competition ina market, customers are faced with a wide choice of who to buy from. They maybuy from the cheapest provider or perhaps from the one which offers the bestcustomer service.  But customers will certainly be mindful of what is areasonable or normal price in the market.

Most firms in a competitivemarket do not have sufficient power to be able to set prices above theircompetitors. They tend to use “going-rate”pricing – i.e. setting a price that is inline with the prices charged by direct competitors.  In effectsuch businesses are “price-takers” – they must accept the goingmarket price as determined by the forces of demand and supply.

An advantage of using competitivepricing is that selling prices should be line with rivals, so price should notbe a competitive disadvantage.

The main problem is that the business needs some other way toattract customers.  It has to use non-price methods to compete – e.g.providing distinct customer service or better availability.



Advantage anddisadvantage :-


Industry Standard and Life-Cycle Pricing

Pricingaccording to a mix of the cost of producing the product and industry standardis easy, but lacks competitive strategy. The price should be used inconjunction with the other elements of the marketing mix. If a product issupposed to be high-end, it should be priced accordingly. Sometimes, managersmake the mistake of leaving the price the same. The price of the product shouldvary throughout the product’s life cycle; the price strategist should setdifferent prices for product introduction, growth, maturity and decline.


Management Pricing

Somemanagers assume that consumers who wish to purchase a product would paywhatever the product is priced. Under this line of thought, many managers pricethe product at what they think it should cost, not what the consumer thinks itshould cost. This may lead to a loss in sales because consumers often interpretprices along with past purchasing experiences and information from research.


Consumer-Based Pricing Strategies

Consumerstend to consider prices in terms of what they think the price should be, comparingtheir perceived price with the actual price. Discrepancy in either direction(too high or too low) may cause the consumer to purchase the product fromanother company. A consumer-based pricing strategy can be advantageous becauseit goes inside the mind of the intended consumer to predict what the consumerwould be willing to pay for a product. Market research and attention to otherelements of the marketing mix help determine the consumer’s ideal price.


Pricing According to Demand

Pricestrategy may also be tied to the economic “law” of supply and demand. The lawof supply and demand states that prices should rise as demand for the productrises. The rise in price leads to a rise in profits, which allows the companyto produce more products. The additional products leads to a surplus, thesurplus causes prices to fall once more, and the lower prices lead to anincrease in demand, starting the cycle over again. Advantages of demand pricinginclude the ability to optimize prices using charts and mathematics thatpredict ideal prices. However, demand pricing may lead to revenue loss byfailing to take into account variables such as production costs and theconsumer’s desired price.



Pricing strategy for:- Low priced TabletComputer :-

Ans:- cost based pricing

Pricing strategy for:- CNG fittedsmall car :-

Ans:- customer based pricing




4.a) What makes managerrely on primary data for marketing decision? Substantiate with  Suitable examples

Solution: Collecting the right information to make a rational and informedmarketing decision sometimes simply means using your knowledge to make adecision on the spot. At other times, it entails collecting an enormous amountof information, or simply put data: the facts and figures related to theproblem. Facts and figures that have already been recorded before the projectat hand areSecondary data, whereas Primary data are facts and figures thatare newly collected for the project.

Gathering primarydata during marketing research is only the first step inretrieving the necessary information to continue in the marketing researchprocess. Primarydata can be supported significantly with the use of secondary dataSecondarydata can greatly substantiate all information gathered duringprimary research if primary research is even required. In some instances,secondary data alone can solve the problem, eliminating the need for primarydata.

There are many ways in which a marketingresearcher can retrieve secondary data. The largest and frequently leastexpensive source for secondary data is the World Wide Web. There are manyreasons as to why secondary data is utilized, especially from the internet. Thefirst and foremost reason for the use of online secondary data for marketingresearch is because almost any data imaginable is readily available. Secondarydata can be retrieved from thousands of places on the internet. Manyorganizations list secondary data on the internet for instant access tomarketing researchers. This allows marketing researchers quick access toinformation, which consequently, allows marketing researchers to make faster,more precise decisions.

Not all problems can be solved with the use ofsecondary online data. Despite that online secondary data is low cost, byutilizing secondary data over primary data, companies can save thousands ofdollars in marketing research expenses every year. A focus group or depthinterview is always moreappropriate than online secondary data when a corporation needs to know theinner most thoughts and motives of customers. Information retrieved through internet market researchtools always calls into question the legitimacy of the research findingsbecause of the ever growing presence of false and inaccurate information.



In conducting primary marketresearch, a company collects data directly from the foreign marketplace throughinterviews, surveys, and other direct contact with representatives andpotential buyers. Primary market research has the advantage of being tailoredto the company’s needs and provides answers to specific questions, but thecollection of such data is time-consuming and expensive.


Marketing,management and consumer research projects in higher education can be eitherpredominantly empirical, conceptual, or they can include elements of each. Empiricalknowledge derives from experience and empirical research projects utilizefirst-hand experience of primary data sets from, for

example,interviews, survey data or observation. The primary data is placed in thecontext of available literature (in the literature review) and is then analysedfor insights or findings. An empirical project report will represent thestudent’s own systematic investigation into the topic. It will include a criticalreview of relevant research literature, perhaps including importantpractitioner literature (trade press, industry reports) and published marketstudies too. The general findings from the review are then evaluated in the

light of thestudent’s first-hand experience of the particular topic area, that is, theirinterpretation of the empirical data that has been gathered. The amount ofprimary data in the empirical project can vary greatly.In research projectsthat are part of taught courses, data sampling may be based on very smallsamples for practical reasons. Qualitative data-gathering techniques usesampling approaches that are not required to provide a basis for statisticallysignificant generalization. Data can be based on convenience samples andneed not be randomized. Primary data can be used to enhance a primarilyconceptual project or it can be used as the major basis of argument for aproject. One MSc student project the author has supervised used three focusgroups, another used four interviews. The amount of primary data that is usefuldepends on the research question. It is also important for student researchersto remember that even if small samples are representative of larger groups,that is, if they share the major

characteristicsof the larger groups, findings are still limited to the immediate researchcontext and should be expressed cautiously in view of this. It is an importantinductive principle of research that even if a particular fact or relationshipbetween variables is true in millions of cases, we cannot know for sure if itwill be true in the next case we examine. Many projects combine elements ofboth conceptual and empirical approaches. One way of combining the twoapproaches is to focus on the literature review while carrying out a limitednumber of short interviews to get important practitioner or consumerperspectives on the topic. These perspectives can then be acknowledged and usedin the discussion. Many projects in marketing and management that investigate alive problem do so by reviewing relevant literature on research and practiceand then comparing the major findings with first-hand interviews withpractitioners. In this way an empirical component can be added to a mainlyconceptual research project. Conducting interviews with practising managersalso has the added benefit of sharpening students’ research interviewing skillsand filling out their knowledge of the area. It can also be a useful exercisein getting contacts in an industry that might offer employment prospects aftergraduation.



Most studies of the decision-makingprocess in marketing have used an adaptation of the scientific method.  This decision-making process is asfollows:


a.    Problem recognition – the consumer recognizes a problem. Forexample, her car has had major mechanical problems for the last two months.

b.    Information search – internal and external.  The consumer thinks about options shemay have to remedy her situation (internal search).  And then she seeks external sources ofinformation such as friends, newspapers, TV, and the internet.

c.     Alternative identification and evaluation – she has some ideasabout what alternatives she has and how to approach them.  She now must compare and contrast theoptions she has.

d.    Choice and purchase – based on this process of consideration theconsumer now purchases the most attractive option she has identified.

e.     Post purchase evaluation – the consumer experiences her choice anddetermines if she is happy with it.

f.      Feedback learning for future consumptionbehavior – the consumer remembers how she feels about her purchase and makesnote of it for future reference (internal search).


There are two types of data collection methods, they areprimarydata collection and secondary data collection.

Primary Data Collection: this type of datacollection are usuallyobserved and recorded or collected directly fromrespondents. This type of datamust be gathered by observing phenomena orsurveying respondents. Primary datacollection can be deemed as bespoke andtherefore time consuming and costly.

This process is more lengthy and complex, it is typically morecostly, involving experimentation, sampling, survey methods, and questionnaireconstruction. The acquisition of primary data often requires an experimentalapproach to determine which variable or variables caused an event to occur.

Experimentation: this involves keeping certain variablesconstant so that the effects of the experimental variables can bemeasured. Forexample, when Apple tests a change in its AppleWorks word processing computerprogram, all sales and marketing variables should be held constant except thechange in the program.

Sampling: by systematically choosing a limitednumber of units, or sample, to represent the characteristics of a totalpopulation, marketers can project the reactions of a total market or marketsegment. The objective of sampling in product development, therefore, is toselect representative units from total population. Sampling procedures are usedin studying the likelihood of events based on assumptions about the future.

Survey Methods: This includes interviews by mail,e-mail,or telephone and personal interviews. Selection of a survey method depends onthe nature of the problem, the data needed to test the hypothesisand theresources, such as funding and personnel that are available to the researcher. Questionnaire Construction: Acareful constructed questionnaire is essential to the success of any survey. Aquestionnaire is abase document for research purposes that provides thequestions and the structure for an interview or self-completion and hasprovision for respondents’ answers. Questions must be designed to elicitinformation that meets the study’s data requirements. Observation Methods: This method enables a researcher to recordrespondents’ overt behaviour, taking note of physical conditions and events.Direct contact with respondents is avoided; instead, their actions are examinedand noted systematically. Observation is straightforward and avoids a centralproblem of survey methods: motivating respondents to state their true feelingsor opinion.



b) Discuss the factorsthat are major determinants of promotion mix in the following  Situations.

i)                  Midsize FMCG Company    

ii)               Bankingservices



Ans:- promotion mix


According to Philipkotler “promotion or communication mix means combination of allpromotional tools and the firm’s promotion or communication mix communicatesthe firm’s positioning strategies to its relevant markets, including consumers,employees, stockholders, and suppliers”

The primary role of promotion is to communicate withindividuals, groups, or organizations in the environment to directly orindirectly facilitate exchanges. The five major ingredients thatcan be included in an organization’s promotion mix are advertising, personal selling, publicity, packaging, and sales promotion.

Advertising is a paid form of non personal communication about anorganization and/or its products that is transmitted to a target audiencethrough a mass medium.

Personal selling is a process of informing customers and persuading themto purchase products through personal communication in an exchange situation.

Publicity is non personal communication in news story form, regarding anorganization and/or its products, that is transmitted through a mass medium atno charge.

A package can be used for promotional purposes to attract attention andto inform customers.

Sales promotion is an activity and/or material that acts as a directinducement, offering added value or incentive for the product, to resellers,salespersons, or consumers.

Several major determinants that influence the selection of promotional methodsto include in a promotion mix for a product are the organization’s promotional resources,objectives,and policies;the characteristics of the targetmarket; the characteristics of the product; and the costand availability of promotionalmethods.

The set of strategic decisions in the area of promotion which concern theallocation of effort among different methods of promotion.

Companies often use haphazard and seat-of-the-pants procedures to determine therespective roles of advertising, personal selling, and sales promotion in aproduct or market situation. A study of the American Marketing ScienceInstitute (MSI) on the subject revealed the following:

(1) Decisions on the promotional mix were often diffused among many decisionmakers. This inhibited the formation of unified promotion strategy, andindecision and conflict often occurred.

(2) Personal selling plans were sometimes divorced from the planning ofadvertising and sales promotion.

(3) Frequently the decision makers were not adequately aware of the objectivesand broad strategies of the overall product program which the promotion planwas designed to implement.

(4) Sales and market share goals tended to be constant, regardless of decreasesor increases in promotional expenditures. Thus they became unrealistic asguides and directives for planning, or as criteria of promotionaleffectiveness, or even as a fair basis for application of the judgment of thedecision makers.

(5) The working planner was usually expected to prepare only one allocationplan for a product. Alternate marketing or promotion strategies did not receivefull consideration. Decisions on the funds allocated among alternativepromotional methods usually lacked objective measures of effectiveness orreliable sets of guidelines. Lacking alternative strategies, planners wereunprepared to meet contingencies and to adapt the program readily to feedbackof its effects or environmental changes.

(6) Negative planning, to be implemented should expenditures be cut back, wasmissing. Unforeseen cutbacks were perennial in most companies. Promotion fundswere often the first to be reduced when profits were threatened.

(7) In most of the companies there seemed to be a minimum of emphasis on recordkeeping and a reluctance to worry about what actually happened in the past asopposed to what was intended.

(8) Frequently, senior marketing personnel were not clearly informed ofassumptions and conditions underlying lower-echelon decisions the programssubmitted for management review often lacked necessary details for upstreamdecision making.

(9) Lower-echelon persons in some companies were not given the authoritynecessary to carry out their assignments, yet they were responsible forresults.

(10) Top management seldom asked for support from knowledgeable line and staffgroups in arriving at their final decisions these communications difficultieswere a source of confusion and a demoralizing influence.

(11) Expenditure levels for promotion were typically derived by workingbackward rather arbitrarily from sales revenue forecasts. Quantifying theobjective, and then referring all contributory factors to systematic andcomprehensive promotional planning procedures, was rare. In those cases whenthis was found, it did not appear well documented or complete.

(12) The allocation of total budgets among the various tasks and tools ofpromotion was sometimes determined by sheer intuition, comparing past patternsof decisions, mechanically working backward from the more fixed items to aresidual for flexible items, relying on competent judgment of others, andarbitrary rules of thumb.

(13) In policy committee meetings, marketing management often presentedwell-rationalized, but not necessarily well-structured, arguments in favor ofvarious promotional mixes. These presentations suffered in comparison with themore logical and rational financial and technical proposals presented by otherline and staff people. Even less prevalent than systematic planning was thepractice of looking at prior years, performances through post audits or reviewsintended to enhance the forward-planning process.

(14) The present state of the art in marketing administration is such thatcause and effect relationships, and other basic insights, are not sufficientlyunderstood to permit knowledgeable forecasts of what to expect from alternatecourses of action. Even identifying feasible alternatives can prove difficult.

Apparently, a variety of factors needs to be considered to determine theappropriate promotion mix in a particular product or market situation. Thesefactors may be categorized as product factors, market factors, customerfactors, budget factors, and marketing mix factors:

Product Factors:

1. Nature of product

2. Perceived risk

3. Durable versus nondurable

4. Typical purchase amount.

Product factors are mainly related to the way in which the product is bought,consumed, and perceived by the customer. For industrial goods, especiallytechnical products, personal selling is more significant than advertising sincethese goods usually need to be inspected and compared before being bought.Salespeople can explain the workings of a product and provide on-the-spotanswers to customers’ queries. For consumer goods such as cosmetics andprocessed foods, advertising is of primary importance. In addition, advertisingplays a dominant role when used for products which provide an opportunity fordifferentiation and for those being purchased with emotional motives.

The perceived risk of a purchase decision is another variabIe here.Generally speaking, the more risk a buyer perceives to be associated withbuying a particular product, the higher will be the importance of personalselling over advertising. A buyer generally likes to have more information onthe product when the perceived risk is high, and this necessitates an emphasison personal selling.

Durable goods are bought less frequently than nondurables and usually require aheavy commitment of resources. These characteristics make personal selling ofgreater significance than advertising for durable goods. However, since manydurable goods are sold through franchiseddealerships, the influence of each type of promotion should be determined inlight of the additional push it would provide in moving the product.

Finally, products purchased in small quantities are presumably purchasedfrequently and require routinedecision making. For these products advertising should be preferable topersonal selling. Often such products are of low value; therefore, a profitablebusiness in these products can only be conducted on volume. This underlines theimportance of advertising in this case.

Market Factors

1. Position in its life cycle

2. Market share

3. Industry concentration

4. Intensity of competition

5. Demand perspectives.

The first market factor is the position of a product in its lifecycle. The creation of primarydemand, hitherto nonexistent, is the primary task duringthe introductorystage; therefore, a high level of promotion effort is needed to explain a newproduct to potential customers.

For consumer goods in the introductory stage, the major thrust is onheavy advertising supported by missionaryselling to help distributors move the product. Additionally, different measuresof sales promotion (e.g., sampling, couponing, free demonstrations, etc.) areemployed to entice the customer to try the product.

In the case of industrial products, personal selling alone is usefulduring this period. During the growthphase there is increasing demand, which means enough business for allcompetitors. In the case of consumer goods, however, the promotional effortshifts to reliance on advertising. Industrial goods, on the other hand, beginto be advertised as the market broadens and continue to require a personalselling effort.

In the maturityphase competition becomes intense, and advertising, along with sales promotionmeasures, is resorted to in order to differentiate the product (a consumergood) from competitive brands and to provide an incentive to the customer tobuy the product. Industrial goods during maturity call for intensive personalselling.

During the declinephase, the promotional effort does not vary much initially from that during thematurity phase except that the intensity of promotion declines. Later on, as pricecompetition becomes keen and demand continues todecline, overall promotional perspectives are reduced.

For a given product class, if market share is high, both advertising andpersonal selling are used. If the market share is low, the emphasis is placedon either personal selling or advertising. This is because high market shareseems to indicate that the company does business in more than one segment anduses multiple channels of distribution. Thus, both personal selling andadvertising are utilized to promote the product. Where market share is low, theperspectives of the business are limited, and either advertising or personalselling will suffice, depending on the nature of the product.

If the industry is concentrated among a few firms, advertising will achieveadditional significance for two reasons. Heavy advertising may help discourageother firms from entering the field. It sustains a desired position for theproduct in the market. Heavy advertising constitutes an implied warranty ofproduct performance and perhaps decreases the uncertainty consumers associatewith new products. In this way new competition is discouraged and existingpositions are reinforced.

Intensity of competition tends to impact promotional blending along the samelines as market share. When competition is keen, all three types of promotionare needed to sustain the product’s position in the market. This is becausepromotion is needed to inform, remind, and persuade customers to buy theproduct. On the other hand, if competitive activity is limited, the majorfunction of promotion is to inform and perhaps remind customers about theproduct. Thus, either advertising or personal selling is mainly used.

Hypothetically, advertising is more suited for products which have relativelylatent demand. This is because advertising investmnent should open up newopportunities in the long run, and if the carryovereffect is counted, expenditure per sales monetary unitwould be more beneficial. If demand is limited and new demand is not expectedto be created, advertising outlay would be uneconomical. Thus, future potentialbecomes a significant factor in determining the role of advertising.

Customer Factors

1. Household versus business customers

2. Number of customers

3. Concentration of customers.

Customer factors are factors which relate to the type of customers a businessserves. One of the major dimensions used to differentiate businesses is theissue of whether they market products for household consumption or fororganizational use. There are several significant differences in the wayproducts are marketed to these two customer groups, and these differences exertconsiderable influence on the type of promotion that should be used. In thecase of household customers, it is relatively easy to identify the decisionmaker for a particular good; therefore, advertising is more desirable. Also,the self-service nature of many consumer product sales makes personal sellingless important. Finally, household customers do not go through a formal buyingprocess utilizing objective criteria as organizational customers do. This againmakes advertising more useful for reaching household customers. Essentially thesame reasons make personal selling more relevant in promoting the product amongorganizational customers.

The number of customers and their geographic concentration also influencepromotional blending. For a small customer base, especially if it isgeographically concentrated, advertising does not make as much sense as it doesin cases where customers are spread all over and represent a significant mass.Caution is needed here because some advertising may always be necessary forconsumer goods, no matter what the market perspectives are. Thus, the aboveanalytical statements only provide a conceptual framework and should not beunderstood as exact yes/no decision criteria.

Budget Factors

1. Financial resources of the organization

2. Traditional promotional perspectives.

Ideally the budget should be based on the promotional tasks to be performed.However, intuitively and traditionally, companies place an upper limit on theamount that they will spend on promotion. Such a limit may influence the typeof promotion which may be undertaken.

Budget factors affect the promotional blend in two ways. First, a financiallyweak company will be constrained in undertaking certain types of promotion.Second, in many companies the advertising budget has been traditionally linkedto revenues as a percentage. This method of allocation continues to be used sothat expected revenues will indicate how much might be spent on advertising inthe future. The allocated funds, then, automatically determine the role ofadvertising. Similarly, personal selling perspectives are determinedindependently.

Marketing Mix Factors

1. Relative price/relative quality

2. Distribution strategy

3. Brand life cycle

4. Geographic scope of market.

The promotion decision should be made in the context of other aspects of themarketing mix. The price and quality of a product relative to competitionimpact the nature of its promotional perspectives. Higher prices must bejustified to the consumer by actual or presumed product superiority. Thus, inthe case of a product which is priced substantially higher, advertisingachieves significance in communicating and establishing the product’s superiorquality in the minds of the customers.

The promotion mix is also influenced by the distribution structure employed forthe product. If the promotion is distributed directly, the sales force willlargely be counted on to promote the product. Indirect distribution, on theother hand, requires greater emphasis on advertising since the sales force pushis limited. As a matter of fact, the further the manufacturer is removed fromthe ultimate user, the greater is the need for the advertising effort tostimulate and maintain demand.

When an existing brand reaches the maturity phase in its life cycle, themarketer has three options: to employ life-extension strategies, to harvest thebrand for profits, and/or to introduce a new brand which may be targeted at amore specific segment of the market. Positioning the new brand during theintroduction phase in the desired slot in the market requires higheradvertising. As it enters the growth phase, advertising will have to be blendedwith personal selling. In the growth phase the overall level of promotion willdecline in scope. In brief, the new brand will have to be treated like a newproduct as far as promotion is concerned.

Finally, the geographic scope of the market to be served is anotherconsideration. Advertising, relatively speaking, is more significant forproducts marketed nationally than for those marketed locally or regionally.Thus, since advertising works out to be an expensive proposition, regionalmarketers should rely less on advertising and more on other forms of promotion,or substitute for television advertising another element of the marketing mix.

In addition, the promotion mix may also be affected by a desire to beinnovative, i.e., to do something different and seek uniqueness.

1.  Mid size FMCG company:-

Introduction :-

Marketingpromotion does not require a big budget if you set astrategic plan. The most affordable marketing plans happen online, where noexpense needs to be incurred for supplies. Proper use of online marketing andnetworking will make sure your business is easily discovered through thefastest and most efficient methods possible. Following up your online effort byfilling your community presence will assure your clients come back again.


Set Up Business Accounts

The first step to advertising your businesson the Internet is setting up business accounts on major search engines. Thisincludes Google, Yahoo!, and Bing, but it may also include an industry-specificsearch engine account. For example, local businesses should have a presence onCitySearch and Yelp!. Restaurants should be listed on UrbanSpoon or a localrestaurant directory.

Use Online Reviews

Once you have been listed on online reviewservices in your industry, it is time to start getting people to review you.Despite what some business owners believe, there are plenty of tricks in placeto stop a business owner from reviewing herself more than one time. This meansyou will have to ask for reviews from others, and the more the better. The goodnews is that many people commonly write reviews online already. You will beasking them to do something they routinely do, but you will still need toprovide incentive. Consider offering a product or service at a discounted ratefor individuals who have provided your business with a review or recommendationto another customer. For example, offer any individual who writes a reviewabout your coffee shop on a coffee shop review site a free cup the next timeshe comes in.

Start a Blog

Before you begin promotions, you should makesure you have a place to announce them. A blog is a great source for constantupdates on promotions and news from your new business. The best part about ablog is you can update it easily. Whenever potential customers search theInternet for information, they will be directed to your blog if it containsthat information. This gives you a separate source for discovery outside ofyour website.

Promote through Social Networks

An overwhelming number of your clients willparticipate in social networking. Whether you elect to engage them throughFacebook, Twitter, LinkedIn or FourSquare, you will find new clients on thesefree websites. Simply posting an account on these sites will not promote yourbusiness, however. Try presenting exclusive offers through social networks.This gives your clients an incentive to continually check your account or page,and in turn, this gives you more chances to get in front of your clients withnew products and services.

Capture Information

When you do get clients to visit your websiteor your business, it is important to capture their information for the future.For example, place buttons on your website to ask people for their emailaddresses. When you collect an email, be sure to add the sender’s address to yourdistribution list. Send information and promotions when appropriate. Askclients who visit your business to provide contact information for the future.Simply sending cards to say “Happy Birthday” to a customer’s homeaddress can remind that person to stop in to your business and make a purchase.

Utilize Community Events

Parades, conferences, fairs and more happenin your community every week or month. These are one-stop shops for capturinginformation and connecting with potentially thousands of new clients. Engagingthe community through these events not only gets your name out there; it showsyou are willing to step away from the office to participate in something thatis important to your potential clients. For example, a fitness studio shouldparticipate in a healthy living festival. A local chiropractor couldparticipate in the same festival, or she could participate in a fair for greentechnology. These are all opportunities to get in front of your clients andstart making your name known.

2.Banking services:-



§  Advertising: Television,radio, movies, theatres

§  Printmedia: hoardings, newspaper, magazines

§  Publicity: roadshows, campus visits, sandwich man, Sponsorship

§  Salespromotion: gifts, discount and commission, incentives, etc.

§  Personalselling: Cross-sale (selling at competitors place),personalizedservice.

§  Telemarketing: ICICIone source Call center (mind space)

Promotional mix used by bank:

We know that the combination of all thepromotional tools is referred to as promotional mix. Here banking sector  is blending a sound mixer by which it istrying to caver the whole target market. Now we will view separately all theelements of promotional mix.


bank is using all the printed media andelectronic media for communicating the services to the clients. The elements ofthe mixes are as follows:

Printed media:bank is using all the printed media including the newspaper, magazines,festoons, billboard, and etc. to communicate their services.

Electronic media:It includes different TVs both the government run and privately own to positionthe idea “your trusted partner”.

Sales promotions:Sometimes bank undertakes sales promotion to attract the existing and newclients short time basis but not appointing any personnel specifically as salespersonnel. Word of mouth of the existing clients act as sales promotion forthat period.

Public relation:

bank sponsors different seminars,symposiums, math Olympiad to build corporate relation with the mass people.


Asbank is performing a lot of social responsibilities. It was awarded the numberone CSR performer in the southern Asia in a conference held in Philippines. Notonly that different media both views the countrywide nonprofit ableperformances printed and electronic which are publishing and telecasting thenews countrywide. it also did the beatification of part of Dhaka city, HotelSheraton  to Ishkha road and that attracted the media as a result bank isgetting publicity than any other service organization in our country thatrepresent obviously the reality.



Word of mouth:

We know that satisfied customer is thebest source of promotion and bank has a great impact of word of mouth, which isgenerated from the existing satisfied customers as they promote the bankservices that they avail. Further more those potential customers who don’t haveaccount but wish to open an account in future for availing the smart service ofbank.


In the study we find that thepromotional mixes of bank are contributing a lot to retain the goodwill and dayby day the authority is being serious about making a sound mixer of theircommunication mixes.


The service organizations offer theirofferings through the promotional mixes. If the reality is matched with the promotionalmessages then no problem but the situation will be very crucial if promises arenot matched with the real services. The deviation between the theories with thepractice is analysis. In the study we find that the inanimate environment ofthe BANK of – branch is very much modern and the behavior of front lineexecutives are standard. The standard of each advertisement in different mediaare very fine. Especially the social responsibilities performed by the bankingservice attracted to the eye of many. Actually BANK has properly used itspromotional mixes. It is trying to provide the standard and promised servicesto its clients. Banking manager thinks that the service provided will make thecustomers loyal as a result those customers will further recommend the others.For doing that it is emphasizing on the publicity and public relation andpublicity that is the result of CSR. The target customer of bank is the highercustomer group and slightly he upper middle class group as well. bank has beensuccessful to communicate with the target customers by the proposed servicesthrough the promotional mixes.   The proposed on line banking hasmatched with the reality also. In short it can be asserted that the differencesbetween the services of  bank communicatedthrough various tools and the real mixers of promotion, the performances ofindividual promotional tool and the reality of the service offered are positiveto bank and to the customers.

Conclusion and Recommendations:

The promotional mixes and theeffectiveness of them are fully judgmental but the reality of the services canbe understood better if we would possess accounts at the bank. In spite of thiswe can say that this joint venture is performing very well in serving thenation very well. But still there are some recommendations, which are asfollows:


Target customers:

Although banking sector  has targeted thehigher-class income group but most of the people in our country are middleclass and lower class income group. DBBL can target that segment to increaseits market share although it has become successful to satisfy the higher incomepeople.


Customer training:

We know that banks  has many ATM booths  allover thecountry but the people are less trained about this technology. So it canprovide more training to the targeted customers about different card includingclassic card, silver card, and gold card. Although visa electronic is notavailable but the band has to teach the people about the upcoming technology.Although it is providing the prospectus and other written learning aid but thelanguage is in English. Those can be translated in to Bengali for thebetterment of the customers.



New social task:


In order to draw the attention of thepeople banking sector can create new ides that means the scope for performingthe Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) such as promoting the bad image ofearly marriage and creating mass awareness about it. Informing the people aboutthe Sanitation and first aid in criticalsituations.



IGNOU MS-02 Free Solved Assignment 2012

Note: Answer all the questions and submit this assignmenton or before April 30, 2012, to the coordinator of your study center.


Q1.How do you see the role of HRM changing in the present day contextof business? What are the new mandates of HRM? Explain with the example of theorganization you have been working for or familiar with. Quote specificsituations to explain your point. Briefly describe the organization you arereferring to.


Solution: Human Resource Management is much discussed in today’sbusiness world. But how well is it understood? In a world where people’scompetencies and skill sets are described in paragraphs rather than in a fewwords and where media reports of salaries make us do a double-take to ensurethat seeing indeed believes, it is becoming increasingly challenging to managethis high potential we consider as the country’s asset.


Over the past two decades, theworld saw a complete makeover in the way Human Resource Management inorganisations was defined, but in India, the change has been more prominent inthe last decade or so, after liberalisation.


Today, managing theexpectations and motivations of a skilled workforce has brought with itattendant complexities in terms of the need for robust HR practices andorganisational procedures.


Earlier considered a supportfunction for any business, HRM today is required to take on a more strategicrole in order to align itself with the organisation’s business strategies.Hence, the HR manager is expected to take on the mantle of a business partneralong with managers of other line functions, in driving the firm’s strategies.


The shift in focus fromtraditional HRM to strategic HRM was inevitable. Competitive advantage for anorganisation lies not just in differentiating a product or service or inbecoming the low cost leader but in also being able to tap the company’sspecial skills or core competencies and rapidly respond to customer’s needs andcompetitor’s moves. HR management can play a role in identifying and analysingexternal opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company’ssuccess. It is in a unique position to supply competitive intelligence that maybe useful in the strategic planning process.


Human Resource Accounting


Over the years, some of thetraditional HR practices have been revisited and analysed to evaluate theirsuitability in today’s world. One such major practice is the concept of HumanResource Accounting (HRA). Initially, one might hesitate to accept a conceptwhich tries to put a monetary value to human beings. How does one attach anumber to a person’s capabilities? However, HRA represents a way to gauge howstrong and profitable an organisation’s workforce is. Organisations have beenclaiming that their employees are their most valuable assets.


The spate of downsizings andincreasing job insecurity notwithstanding, the resurgence of interest in thearea of HRA is perhaps testimony to this approach, where investments in humanresources are now included as assets in a company’s balance sheet, rather thanexpense heads in their profit and loss statements.


The signals are clear — theemployee is an asset who can be groomed to bring in future profitability — anasset which can define the company’s image in the market today. HRA alsoinvolves accounting for investment in people and their replacement costs, asalso the economic value of people in an organisation. A trend yet to catch upin the Indian industry, with a few exceptions such as BHEL, Infosys, SBI andReliance industries, it has been extensively embraced in the West.


Competency mapping


With the growth of theindustries in the `knowledge-verticals’, human talent is undoubtedly the mostimportant asset today. To make sure that a company selects the right person forthe right job, and manages him/her carefully, processes like competency mappingare gaining ground. Competency mapping is a process of identifying keycompetencies for a particular position in an organisation, and then using itfor job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performancemanagement, and succession planning. In conjunction with the balancedscorecard, this can be an extremely robust tool to manage an organisation’sperformance. Despite the growing level of awareness, however, in India,competency development and mapping still remains in the nascent stages ofimplementation.


As far as the HR function isconcerned, the time has perhaps come where it needs to be treated as a linefunction with every manager having HR activities as part of his lineresponsibilities, rather than treating HR as a separate, support-providingactivity only. Today’s manager is expected to wear multiple hats — that of aleader, internal change agent, coach, counsellor, mentor — in addition tohis/her `technical’ responsibilities. This would entail that every manager,irrespective of his/her functional area of specialisation, would have to have athorough grounding in concepts and processes of HR.


At the IIT-Madras Departmentof Management Studies, the curriculum followed in the HR area of specialisationreflects a response to these changing trends, where, in addition toincorporating the newest trends and best practices in the traditional HR coursecurriculum, newer courses in cross-cultural management, change management, andinternational HRM attempt to familiarise the students with new concepts.


It hasbecome fashionable among organisations to use terms such as HRD (Human ResourceDevelopment) and HCM (Human Capital Management) as being representative of thechanging trends in HR practices. Merely renaming the function is however notgoing to be sufficient. The need of the hour is for premier institutes such asthe IIMs, IITs as well as other professional institutions to rise to theoccasion and re-design their curriculum and pedagogical methods in consultationwith the industry, in order to train their students to meet the changedexpectations of the industry.



Q2.What are the methods of Job Analysis and techniques of writing JobDescription. Take example of a few job descriptions and explain its componentsas techniques of writing it. Explain the organisation and the context of thejob adequately to support your answers.


Solution: There are several ways to conduct a job analysis,including: interviews with incumbents and supervisors, questionnaires(structured, open-ended, or both), observation, critical incidentinvestigations, and gathering background information such as duty statements orclassification specifications. In job analysis conducted by HR professionals,it is common to use more than one of these methods.


For example, the job analystsmay tour the job site and observe workers performing their jobs. During thetour the analyst may collect materials that directly or indirectly indicaterequired skills (duty statements, instructions, safety manuals, quality charts,etc.).


The analyst may then meet witha group of workers or incumbents. And finally, a survey may be administered. Inthese cases, job analysts typically are industrial/organizational psychologistsor Human Resource Officers who have been trained by, and are acting under thesupervision of an industrial psychologist.


In the context of vocationalrehabilitation, the primary method is direct observation and may even includevideo recordings of incumbents involved in the work. It is common for such jobanalysts to use scales and other apparatus to collect precise measures of theamount of strength or force required for various tasks. Accurate, factualevidence of the degree of strength required for job performance is needed tojustify that a disabled worker is legitimately qualified for disability status.In the United States, billions of dollars are paid to disabled workers byprivate insurers and the federal government (primarily through the SocialSecurity Administration). Disability determination is, therefore, often afairly “high-stakes” decision. Job analysts in these contextstypically come from a health occupation such as occupational or physicaltherapy.


Questionnaires are the mostcommon methodology employed by certification test developers, although thecontent of the questionnaires (often lists of tasks that might be performed)are gathered through interviews or focus groups. Job analysts can at timesoperate under the supervision of a psychometrician.


Writing Effective Job Descriptions ‘Getting It Right, The First Time -So You Get The Right Person’


Who Should Attend?


Human Resource personnel,administration staff responsible for Human Resources, and / or line managersinvolved in staff appraisals, job evaluation, or other organizational changes.


About the Programme


This one-day course isdesigned to be of highly practical value to delegates. At the end of theprogramme, they will have the necessary skills to write Job Descriptions andPerson Specifications for their organizations.


Course Objectives


  • To understand the need for Job Descriptions andPerson Specifications in the workplace
  • To understand the difference between JobDescriptions, Person Specifications and Competencies
  • To understand the key components of JobDescriptions and Person Specifications
  • To understand how to use Job Descriptions andPerson Specifications in the workplace
  • To provide practice in constructing professionalJob Descriptions and Person Specifications


What You Will Gain


  • Practical experience in writing Job Descriptionsand Person Specifications
  • A guided understanding of the needs, components,and various uses of Job Descriptions and Person Specifications in the workplace
  • Programme Contents
  • What Is A Job Description?
  • Effective Job Descriptions – Background
  • What Is ‘Job Analysis’ & Why Is ItImportant?
  • The Definitions Used In Job Analysis
  • The Employee’s Role In Job Analysis
  • Creating A Job Description
  • Guidelines For Writing Job Descriptions
  • What To Include In A Job Description
  • Job Descriptions & Recruitment
  • What Are ‘Key / Core Competencies’?
  • What Is A ‘Person Specification’?
  • The Seven Point Plan
  • Guided Practice In Writing Job Descriptions& Person Specifications, For Your Workplace




Q3.What are the methods of Competency Mapping? Explain briefly withorganizational example of the organization you are working for or familiarwith. Briefly describe the organization and the context leading to mapping.

Solution: Competency mapping can play asignificant role in recruiting and retaining people as it gives a more accurateanalysis of the job requirements, the candidate’s capability, of the differencebetween the two, and the development and training needs to bridge the gaps,asserts Martin.

As faras meeting an individual’s career aspirations are concerned, once theorganisation gives an employee the perspective of what is required from him toreach a particular position, it drives him to develop the competencies for thesame. “Competencies enable individuals to identify and articulate whatthey offer-regardless of the (usually misfit) job they happen to have at thetime-so that their organisation (current or future) can see, value and utilisewhat capability is actually available,” says Martin.

LynetteD’Silva, manager, learning & development, HR, Zensar Technologies, pointsout that competency mapping helps identify the success criteria (i.e.behavioural standards of performance excellence) required for individuals to besuccessful in their roles. It helps to:

  • Support specific and objective assessment of their strengths, and specify targeted areas for professional development.
  • Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills.
  • Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance, development, and career-related issues.

“Ifan individual is able to discuss the above with his manager, it will help himto chalk out his growth perspectives in the company,” states D’Silva.

AtZensar and L&T Infotech

As a result of competency mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, appraisals and training yield much better results

Ullhas Pagey
HR Consultant

Competency mapping helps identify the success criteria required for individuals to be successful in their roles

Lynette D’Silva
Manager Learning & Development, HR Zensar Technologies

Zensarhas a behavioural competency model which is based on various job roles in theorganisation. D’Silva describes the process of implementation:

  • Having defined the various job roles, a focused study was initiated where job role holders were interviewed on the critical incident method and the data of success-critical factors was collated.
  • The job roles and deliverables were finalised on the basis of the competencies derived from the data. This data was further analysed, and on the basis of this competencies that had an impact on the job roles and deliverables were finalised.
  • After identifying the competencies, a job analysis exercise was carried out where the importance level of every competency was ascertained before freezing the competency model.

Forteam leaders and project managers, the company also runs development centres in-house;here, individuals are profiled on behavioural competencies required for theirposition. “This process creates awareness in the individual about hisbehavioural traits in detail, and helps him chalk out an individual developmentplan. Development centres help map an individual’s potential, which is usefulto both the individual and the organisation. All management developmentprogrammes are also fine-tuned to address the specific competency needs atdifferent levels,” explains D’Silva, adding that the 360-degree feedbackhas also been designed on the competency model, enabling managers to getfeedback from their teams. This feedback is based on the rating of thecompetencies which are an integral part of their managerial skill-set.

L&TInfotech, a PCMM Level 5 company, has a successful competency-based HR system.Recruitment, training, job rotation, succession planning and promotions-all aredefined by competency mapping. Says Dr Devendra Nath, executive vice-president ofthe company, who had initiated the PCMM process in the parent company (L&T)in 1997, “Nearly all our HR interventions are linked to competency.Competencies are enhanced through training and job rotation.” He adds thatall people who have gone through job rotation undergo a transformation and geta broader perspective of the company. For instance, a person lacking innegotiation skills might be put in the sales or purchase department for a yearto hone his skills in the area.

DhananjaySavarkar, head of the training department, L&T Infotech, asserts that in notwo organisations can competency frameworks be the same; it will vary over timeeven in one organisation. It is not timeless, it is contextual. “We callit the DNA of success…it is what makes star performers work in a particularway. Isolate the DNA and make it available to ten others,” says Savarkar.When the company started competency mapping the whole process took eight monthsfor six roles and two variations. Eventually, 16-18 profiles were worked out.The company uses PeopleSoft for competency mapping. “Behaviouralcompetencies do not change every month. Two appraisals are done subsequently…every project-end for skills, and annual for behavioural competencies.” Heacknowledges that there was resistance from the line people, but when thenumbers started flowing they sat up. Every quarter, an SBU-based skillsportfolio is published. Nath says that it has been a very rewarding experience.As far as training and development is concerned, instead of asking people toattend classes, they themselves get pulled to the classes. Introduction ofcompetency mapping has also involved introducing skill appraisals inperformance appraisals. This has also led to training people on how to assesssubordinates on competencies. Notes Nath, “The best human resourcesdevelopment is when people in the line department do HR. Where the HRdepartment is the enabler, the line people see the advantage and driveus.” Competency-based HR makes this almost-utopian dream attainable.

Competency Profile of a Project Manager in an SBU at L&T Infotech




Q4. Explain the concept of Role and Role systems. Explain them with thehelp of organizational example. How do you see your role fitting into Role setand Role space, explain. Briefly describe the organisation, you are referringto.


Solution: Role is the position one occupies in a social system, asdefined by the functions on

performs in response to theexpectations of the ‘significant’ members of social system, and one’s own expectationsfrom that position or office. Role and office (or position), though two sidesof the same coin, are, however, two separate concepts. According to Katz andKahn, “Office is essentially a relational concept, defining each positionin terms of its relationship to other and to the system as a whole”. Eachindividual occupies and plays several roles. A person X is a daughter, a mother,a salesperson, an member of a club, a member of a voluntary organization, andso on. All these roles constitute the role space of X. At the centre of therole space is the self. As the concept of role is central to that of anorganization, so also the concept of self is central to the several roles of aperson. The term ‘self refers to the interpretations the person makes about thereferent’ I”.. It is a cognitive structure which evolves from pastexperience with other persons and objects. Self can be defined as theexperience of an identity arising from a person’s interactions with the externalreality – things, persons and systems. A person performs various roles whichare centered the self these roles are at varying distances from the self (andfrom each other). These relationships define the ‘role space. Role space isthen a dynamic interrelationship between the self and the various roles an individual’soccupies, and also amongst these roles. The Concepts and System of The distancebetween a role and the self indicates the extent to which the role is integratedwith the self. When we do not enjoy a particular role or do not get involved init, there is a distance between the self and the role. We shall use the term self-roledistance to denote this: Similarly, there may be distance between two roles thata person occupies. For example, the role of club membership may be, distant fromthe, role of a husband: This we will term as inter-role distance or inter-role conflict.


The role space map of anindividual can be drawn by location the self in the centre, and various rolesoccupied at varying distances from the self. Exhibit 7 presents the role spaceof a person “A”, who is personnel manager in a company. The numbers 9to 1, for the various circles, represent distances . From the self 1 denotingthe least distance and 9 the most. The various roles of A are located in thefour quadrants according to the context (i.e., family, organization. professionor recreation).




Q5.What are the functions, determinants and objectives of compensationin an organizational context? Explain with example whether the compensationstructures are essentially based on evaluation programme? Briefly describe theorganization, you are referring to.


Solution: Pay satisfaction results in positive work attitude andbehavior among employees. This has positive impact on organizationaleffectiveness and performance. Maximize the potential of compensation impact onorganizational effectiveness by giving fair and just pay. None can deny thefact that most people seek employment and expect fair compensation for the workthey have done.

There are very few people -possibly none – who are willing and readily do work for free. Those involved incharitable activities are possibly the exceptions.


According to Barber and Bretz(2000), “pay is one of the most important job attributes to jobseekers.”Employees are interested to know their commencing pay and the paystructure indicating the minimum and maximum pay range. They also want to knowthe formula for calculating pay increases whether given annually or on theoccurrence of certain events such as upon promotion or when additionalresponsibilities are given. Benefits which are non-cash compensation are alsoimportant to employees.



Profit-Oriented Organizations


Maslow’s Theory of Needsindicates how compensation impact on organizational effectiveness may apply.Pay allows people to satisfy their needs at the lower levels.


Fairness in compensationsystems is important. Employees must not only feel that they are compensatedfairly but that they – as well as others – must perceive that the compensationis fair in the circumstances. Money is one of the things that can motivateworkers. However, it has its limit in maintaining employee motivation.


Money – that is, compensation -has different effect on different people. Even if this is so, every employeewill perform the necessary required work for as long as he or she is fairly compensated.Motivated people perform well. In this way they have impact on theproductivity, and thus, profitability, of organizations.


Charitable Organizations


You may want to know thecompensation impact on organizational effectiveness in charitableorganizations. You can say that people who involve themselves in charitableworks have different motivation in life. They are motivated more by the goodresulting from their contribution than by monetary gains. They feel happy thatthey have participated for the general good and want to continue as long asthey possibly can. Their good feeling and joy in giving help freely is a formof “compensation.” These people will feel that they have not usedtheir time, energy and talent in vain. However, charitable organizations havefull-time employees. Surely, pay is an important motivation for them.


Compensation and Job Satisfaction


There are surveys thatindicate compensation affects job satisfaction. It has impact on employeeattitude and behavior.


When employees aredissatisfied,


1. The quality of their workwill become worse

2. They tend to be late or dothings other than their core tasks, and

3. The level of absenteeismand turnover is higher.


These have negative impacts onorganizational performance. An organization can lose its capability but only tothe degree that negative attitude and behavior are shared by the majority ofemployees. Delivery of products or services of the required quality and numberon time will suffer a setback.


Rampant absenteeism and highturnover, for example, can spell disaster for organizations.

You may have noticed thatthere are other factors involved. Take for example, the real possibility thatfairness in compensation is perceived differently by different people. Thereare also external forces that influence employees’ understanding of whatconstitutes fairness. Employee unions can sway members’ thinking.


Union officials who negotiateda poor pay for members can have negative impact on employees satisfaction withtheir pay.


Employees who are satisfiedwith their union’s action tend to be satisfied with their pay. They tend toperform better. However, if the union’s performance and the negotiated pay isnot satisfactory, employees tend to perform poorly. Some surveys had beenconducted on this. You can conclude that compensation impact on organizationaleffectiveness is playing a role here. Employee performance has a correspondingeffect on the organization’s performance. It is important to remember thatdifferent outcomes may result in different organizations.


Strategic Compensation


Since compensation impact onorganizational effectiveness is a reality, it is only logical that you optimizeits potential by giving your people fair and just compensation for works welldone or to motivate employees to perform better.


Again, many factors come intoplay including union membership, understanding and perception of whatconstitutes “fair and just” compensation, present conditions, and soon.


A fair compensation frameworkhas the potential of making employees more satisfied. Since pay is one of theimportant attributes of work, employees will perform well for a fair pay. This,in turn, impacts on organizational performance and effectiveness. If you manageto strike a good balance between pay and work, among other things, you willsurely achieve some degree of compensation impact on organizationaleffectiveness.


IGNOU MBA MS-21 Free Solved Assignment 2012

Course Code              :           MS- 21

Course Title               :           SocialProcesses and Behavioral Issues

Assignment Code      :           MS-21/TMA/SEM- I/2012

Coverage                    :           All Blocks



Q1.Discuss the paradigm shiftof work culture and the related issues in the present day context.  Briefly describe the factors oforganizational relevance.


Solution:  Work culture in Indian organizations hasassumed a far greater significance in the context of the emerging businessscenario. In order to gain and retain competitive advantage, it is imperativefor organizations to develop a responsive work culture based on the newparadigm. An attempt has been made here to discern the direction of change,specify cultural imperatives, identify dimensions of responsive work cultureand highlight their implications for organizations. Shifts in paradigm andcorresponding changes in various dimensions of work culture have beensuggested. In order to develop and reinforce responsive work culture inorganizations, design and process imperatives have been outlined in brief.


Paradigmshifts tend to be most dramatic in sciences that appear to be stable andmature, as in physics at the end of the 19th century. At that time, a statementgenerally attributed to physicist Lord Kelvin famously claimed. In this case,the new paradigm reduces the old to a special case in the sense that Newtonianmechanics is still a good model for approximation for speeds that are slowcompared to the speed of light. Philosophers and historians of science,including Kuhn himself, ultimately accepted a modified version of Kuhn’s model,which synthesizes his original view with the gradualist model that preceded it.Kuhn’s original model is now generally seen as too limited.

Kuhn’sidea was itself revolutionary in its time, as it caused a major change in theway that academics talk about science. Thus, it could be argued that it causedor was itself part of a “paradigm shift” in the history and sociologyof science. However, Kuhn would not recognize such a paradigm shift. Being inthe social sciences, people can still use earlier ideas to discuss the historyof science.


The Factors of OrganizationalRelevance

Organizationsare collections of interacting  and interrelated human and non-human resources working toward a common goal or set ofgoals within the framework of structured relationships. Organizational behavioris concerned with all aspects of how organizations influence the behavior  of individuals and how individuals in turninfluence organizations.  Oranizationalbehavior is an inter-disciplinary field that draws freely from a number of the behavioral sciences, including anthropology, psychology, sociology, andmany others.  The  unique mission of organizational behavior isto apply the concepts of behavioral sciences to the pressing problems ofmanagement, and, more generally, to administrative theory and practice.  In approaching the problems of organizationalbehavior, there are a number of available strategies  we can utilize.  Historically, the study of management andorganizations took a closed-systems view. The preoccupation of this view is to maximize the efficiency of internaloperations.  In

doingso, the uncertainty of uncontrollable and external environmental factors often were   assumed away or denied.  This traditional closed-systems view oforganizations made substantial contributions to the theory of organizationaldesign.  At the same time, for analyticalreasons,

Organizationscame to be viewed as precise and complex machines.  In this framework, human beings were reducedto components of the organizational machine. More recently, the study oforganizations and the behavior of human beings within them have assumed a moreopen-systems perspective.  Factors suchas human sentiments and attitudes, as well as technological and sociologicalforces originating outside the organizations, have assumed greater importancein analyzing organizational behavior.



Q2. Why is it important tounderstand human behavior and the implications to the organization? Discuss.Briefly describe the models to understand human behavior and their relevance.


Solution: There are five basic modelsin the understanding of human behavior. These models include: The BiologicalModel, The Psychoanalytic Model, The Behaviorist  Model,The Cognitive-Behavioral Model, and TheHumanistic Model.

1.Biological:Concerned with the activity of the nervous system, especially the brain, actionof hormones & genetics

2.Psychodynamic:Emphasizes internal conflicts, mostly unconscious

3.Behavioral:Concerned with learning, especially each person’s experience with rewards andpunishments

4.Cognitive:Studies the mechanisms through which people receive, store, retrieve, andotherwise process information

5.Humanistic:Emphasizes individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions inguiding behavior and mental processes.


ThePsychodynamic Approach

TheInterpretation of Dreams was a landmark for the science of psychology. Freud’sideas about dreaming and other mental processes were often controversial. Whetherone accepts or rejects Freud’s theory, there is little doubt thatpsychoanalysis had significant impact. Terms like unconsciousness, ego, defensemechanism were introduced by Freud.

Freud’sStructural Models of Personality (Psychoanalysis)

SigmundFreud’s Theory is quite complex and although his writings on psycho sexual developmentset the groundwork for how our personalities developed, it was only

One offive parts to his overall theory of personality. He also believed thatdifferent driving forces develop during these stages which play an importantrole in how we interact with the world. which contains our primitive impulsessuch as sex, anger, and hunger. The id is an important part of our personalitybecause as newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met. Freud believedthat the id is based on our pleasure principle. In other words, the id wantswhatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of thesituation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the childcries. The id doesn’t care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, onlyits own satisfaction .If you think about it, babies are not real considerate oftheir parents’ wishes. They have no care for time, whether their parents aresleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing. When the id wants something,nothing else is important.


The Ego:

Withinthe next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world,thesecond part of the personality begins to develop. Freud called this part theEgo.It is the part of the personality which maintains a balance between ourimpulses (id) and our conscience (superego). The ego is based on the realityprinciple




Q3. Briefly describe thesalient features of counseling and possible outcomes. Discuss the ethicalissues in counseling in organizations.


Solution: Salient Features of Counseling


To betruly effective, the  counselor must havea thorough understanding of human

behaviourin its social and cultural context and be able to apply that understanding to

theparticular set of problems or circumstances of each client.


2.Changein the Client

It isoften  difficult to  document the change in the  client. Behaviour change, if it

occurs,is probably the easiest to observe because it is the most tangible. However,

clients  may also change their views aboutcertain  behaviours that they previously

regardedas  undesirable, they may change  in the extent to which they experience

stressrelated to an unwanted situation, or may reduce their general levels of

emotionaldistress or their values as they progress through counseling. For example, a

person maycome to value family relationships more and work achievement less or

maybecome more tolerant of persons with different political, religious, or social

philosophies.It is thus quite difficult to conclude about change.


3.TheQuality of the Relationship

Thequality of the relationship not only provides a safe and comforting contextfrom

whichinterventions that  may help the  client are introduced but can also be

therapeuticin itself. The experience  of a genuineand immediate relationship can

itselfsometimes be transforming even if there is no other counseling intervention.


Ethical Issues in counselingin Organizations

A numberof ethical dilemmas arising from counseling in organizations have been raisedin the literature: confidentiality the incompatibility between theorganization’s  aims and the aims ofcounseling loyalty of the counselor and managing different roles  with the same client.  Workplace counselors face not only a barrageof possible ethical dilemmas, but do so

withoutclear and helpful frameworks for ethical decision-making in work contexts.

Sugarman,1992 stresses five focal points for the counselor where ethical concerns

need tobe tackled:

Identifyingthe extent to which the aims of an organization over and above the aims ofcounseling compromise counseling ethical foundation.  Identifying the points at which the counselingprovision benefits the organization at the individual’s expense.  Identifying any points at which theorganization exceeds its right to control  aspects of the employee’s behaviour.  Negotiating what is implied by the term`confidentiality’ and the conditions  underwhich it will and will not be maintained.  Identifying whether the resource aresufficient and appropriate to doing more  good than hard, and in what ways the originsof the resource  compromise the  aims of the service.

It wouldbe extremely difficult to prioritize ethical issues. However, there is some validityin presenting confidentiality as one of the most crucial factors that can  determinethe credibility of counseling within organizations. Failure in this area will destroythe reputation of  a counseling serviceand yet it is not easy to maintain  confidentialitywhen there are a host of factors within organizations. Failure in this area  will destroy the reputation of a counselingservice. And yet it is not easy to maintain confidentiality when there are ahost of factors within industry vying with one another to compromise it –  managers wanting information on employees,  personal asking to  be involved, individual  clients sharing material detrimental to  organizational policy, etc. Because of itscomplexity there have been calls for  specificcodes geared to each counseling service within each company




Q4. Describe the importanceof teams in organizations. Briefly discuss the factors in building effectiveteams and how team sustenance is a critical issue.


Solution: Team work is essential incorporate for better output and a better bonding among employees.


No organization runs forcharity. Targetsmust be met and revenues have to be generated. Tasks must not be kept pendingfor a long time and ought to be completed within the desired timeframe. Asingle brain can’t always come with solutions or take decisions alone. He needssomeone with whom he can discuss his ideas. In a team, every team member has anequal contribution and each team member comes out with a solution best suitedto the problem. All the alternatives can be explored to come out with the bestpossible solution. Thoughts can be discussed among the team members and thepros and cons can be evaluated.


Tasks are accomplished at afaster pace when it is done by a team rather than an individual. An individual willdefinitely take more time to perform if he is single handedly responsible foreverything. When employees work together, they start helping each other andresponsibilities are shared and thus it reduces the work load and workpressure. Every team member is assigned one or the other responsibilityaccording to his specialization, level of interest and thus the output is muchmore efficient and faster.


Work never suffers or takes abackseat in a team. Mikewas taking care of an important client and was the only one coordinating withthem. Mike took a long leave and there was no one else who could handle theclient in his absence. When he joined back after a long vacation, theorganization had already lost the client. Had Mike worked in a team, otherscould have taken the charge when he was not there. In a team, the other team memberscan perform and manage the work in the absence of any member and hence work isnot affected much.


There is always a healthycompetition among the team members. Competition is always good for the employeeas well as the organization as every individual feels motivated to performbetter than his other team member and in a way contributing to his team and theorganization.


Team work is also importantto improve the relations among the employees. Individuals work in close coordination witheach other and thus come to know each other better. Team work also reduces thechances of unnecessary conflicts among the employees and every individual trieshis level best to support his team member. The level of bonding increases as aresult of team work.


Team members can also gainfrom each other. Everyindividual is different and has some qualities. One can always benefitsomething or the other from his team members which would help him in the longrun. Everyone is hungry for recognitions and praises. One feels motivated towork hard in a team and to live up to the expectations of the other members.Each member is a critic of the other and can correct him whenever the otherperson is wrong. One always has someone to fall back on at the time of crisis.

Team andteam work must be encouraged at workplace as it strengthens the bond among theemployees and the targets can be met at a faster pace. Workload is shared andindividuals feel motivated to perform better than his team members.


The Factors in BuildingEffective Teams:

Teambuilding skills are essential for every aspect of life. Whether your a manager,entrepreneur or just setting up a neighborhood park clean up, basic teambuilding skills can determine the success of any project. Needless to say, manyprojects and events have failed because team collaboration and team work wassacrificed for individual grand standing and personal achievements.


Belongingto a team sets you up for greater effectiveness that you never could accomplishon your own. Organizations and groups that promote teamwork create environmentsthat lead to greater productivity, creativity not to mention a feeling ofownership. Here are 8 basic strategies for effective team building:



Thesuccess of any group project is that there must be a clear single goal. Manyteams fail when there are multiple agendas. Teams and organizations thatsucceed are those that have communicated a common purpose and goal.



With allcommunication clarity is a must. Great communication keeps team members fromaborting the core of the project due to lack of understanding of the overallpurpose. Frequent communication of the project purpose can be vital in keepingthe team on track.


CommitmentFrom Each Team Member

For agroup a people to function as a productive team, there has to be a commitmentfrom each team member to the team. This can be the fall of many team projectswhen there is a lack of commitment.


Do WhatYou Do Best

Thepurpose of assembling a team, is to group together individuals that havespecific skills to accomplish a specific project. The purpose in which anindividual is selected is based on their skills that they bring to the task.When putting a team together, there are two ways to look at this approach. Youcan select those that you can guarantee their performance or mingle in newmembers to set the tone for productive team collaboration.


It’s NotAbout YOU!

Thehardest attitude to grasp in playing a role on a team is that “it’s not aboutyou.” It not about your resume, what others will think, it’s about playing arole to accomplish the goal or task that has been given. The hardest challengeto any project lead or manager is getting a group on individuals to function asa team and place their personal ambitions to the side.


You’veGot to Talk to Each Other

Not onlyis communication of the project goal vital, but frequent updates of the task isimportant. With multiple tools at our fingertips like email, mobile phones,wiki’s, and project management software, to not communicate is a sure sign oflack of commitment from team members.


Work asa Team, Play as a Team

You cantell when teams have spent time together both in a working and socialenvironment. Successful teams can anticipate what others will do and how theywill respond. This can only happen by being together. Any person that isresponsible for building teams will factor in the importance of spending timetogether both on projects and in non-working events.




Q5.Briefly discuss thedynamics of power and politics in organizations. Describe the ethical issuesinvolved in politics and power in organizations. 


Solution: To help us understandorganizations, we might consider them as political systems. The political  metaphor helps us understand powerrelationships in day-to-day organizational relationships. If  we accept that power relations exist inorganizations, then politics and politicking are an essential  part of organizational life.  Politics is a means of recognizing and,ultimately,  reconciling competinginterests within the  organization.Competing interests can be reconciled by any number of means. For example,  resorting to “rule by the manager”might be seen as an example of totalitarian rule. On the other  hand, politics may be a means of creating anoncoercive, or a democratic work environment. Organizations need mechanismswhereby they reconcile conflicting interests. Systems of rule… each representa political orientation with respect to how power is… distributed  throughout the organization.

To help us understand organizations, we mightconsider them as political systems. The political

metaphorhelps us understand power relationships in day-to-day organizationalrelationships. If

weaccept that power relations exist in organizations, then politics andpoliticking are an essential  part oforganizational life.   Politics is a means of recognizing and,ultimately, reconciling competing interests within the  organization. Competing interests can bereconciled by any number of means. For example, resorting to “rule by the manager” might be seen as an exampleof totalitarian rule. On the other  hand,politics may be a means of creating a no coercive, or a democratic workenvironment.   As mentioned, organizations need mechanismswhereby they reconcile conflicting interests. Hence, organizations, like governments, tend to “rule” by somesort of “system”. This “system” is employed to create andmaintain “order” among the organization’s members.   Systems of rule within organizations rangefrom autocratic to democratic at the extremes. Between these extremes we find bureaucratic and technocratic systems. Whateverthe system, each represents a political orientation with respect to how poweris applied and distributed throughout the organization. Each type oforganizational “rule” simply draws on different principles oflegitimacy.

…politicsstems from a diversity of interests…  Organizationalactors seek to satisfy not only organizational interests, but also their own…needs; driven by self-interest…

According to Aristotle, politics stems from adiversity of interests. To fully understand the

Politicsof the organization, it is necessary to explore the processes by which peopleengage in politics. Consistent with Aristotle’s conceptualization, it is agiven that, within the organization,

allemployees bring their own interests, wants, desires, and needs to theworkplace.

Organizationaldecision-making and problem- solving, while seemingly a rational process, is alsoa political process. Organizational actors seek to satisfy not onlyorganizational interests, but also their own wants and needs; driven byself-interest.



Course Code : MCS-015

Course Title : Communication Skills

Assignment Number : MCA(1)/015/Assign/2012

Maximum Marks : 100

Last date of submission : 30th April,2012

Answer all questions. Please go through the guidelines regarding assignments given in the Programme Guide for the format of presentation.

Question 1:

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Thanatos, the god of death, is one of the second generation deities of the Greek pantheon. From Thanatos we get “thanatophobia”: the abnormal, irrational fear of death. It may be fear of the pain and physical agony of dying; or the fear of nothingness after death. If such fear becomes an obsession that cripples normal life, psychiatric help may be necessary.

Another more familiar word from the same root is “euthanasia”. In common language it is called “mercy killing”. It can mean directly causing death by lethal drugs (active) or withholding of treatment (passive). The Netherlands has been the most liberal in accepting euthanasia as a measure to help the patient. The Dutchexperience with euthanasia paved the way for further debate and reform in the Western world.

In 1971, the Dutch physician Geertruda Postma administered a lethal dose of medication to end the life of her 78-year-old mother. She reported the matter to the authorities. She was charged with mercy killing and was given a suspended sentence of one week. In 1984, Dr P.L. Schoonheim euthanized his 85-year-old patient, who had already signed a “living will” asking to be euthanized if she could not return to a dignified life. When she knew that her future was bleak, she requested to be put to sleep “as soon as possible”. The doctor acceded to her request and then notified the authorities.

In his defence, the doctor pleaded that he had a conflict of duties, between his duty to the patient and his legal duty not to kill. The Dutch supreme court accepted the plea of conflict of duty leading to irresistible necessity. Meantime, the Royal Dutch Medical Association listed the criteria to be observed when resorting to euthanasia. These included the patient’s explicit, persistent request based on full information; hopeless suffering; absence of any alternative; and the concurrence of a second physician.

Euthanasia in the US is closely linked to the name Dr Kevorkian. He introduced “a death machine” which terminally ill people can trigger to cause their own death. Kevorkian called it “thanatron”. Two patients were assisted by this machine. But then his licence was revoked and he had no access to the chemicals for thanatron. He introduced “mercitron”, which uses carbon monoxide in a gas mask.

Oregon state, while declaring euthanasia illegal, passed the Death with Dignity Act in 1997. This requires a patient to voluntarily administer lethal medication himself, prescribed by a physician. The patient, not the relatives, must ask for assistance to die. The criteria were stringent to ensure the law was not misused.

Canada’s stand on euthanasia came into focus with the celebrated case of Sue Rodriguez in 1992. She was a victim of a terminal disease. She went to court to seek permission to end her life by euthanasia. In a famous outburst, she asked, “Whose body is this? Who owns my life?” She carried her fight to the supreme court of Canada, but didn’t win the case. She committed suicide later.

Meanwhile, India seems to be catching up. The law commission has recommended that “a terminally ill man or a man in a persistent vegetative state can be permitted to terminate it by premature extinction of life”. The Kerala government has received a similar recommendation from its law reforms commission. A test case has been filed this year by 70-year-old Karibasamma in the Karnataka high court seeking mercy killing.

To me, the thought of euthanasia has become less disturbing after I read that King George V of England died in 1936 after a lethal injection that Lord Dawson, the royal physician, administered. (VR Narayanaswami)

Answer the questions given below:

(i) Give two reasons cited in the passage why people are scared of death. (2 Marks)

Ans: As per the given passage, people are scared of death because of following reasons:

1. Pain and physical agony of dying

2. Fear of nothingness after death

(ii) Which county triggered the euthanasia debate in the western world?

What is its status in India today? (Marks 1+3)

Ans: Netherlands triggered the euthanasia debate in the western world.

In India, there is slowly some focus is being made as the law commission has recommended that “ A terminally ill man or a man in persistent vegetative state can be permitted to terminate it by premature extinction of life”. Kerala state govt. has received a similar recommendation from its law reforms commission. A test case has been filed this year by 70 year old Karibasamma in the Karnataka High Court seeking mercy killing.

(iii) What is the author’s own feeling about euthanasia? Pick out that line

to illustrate your answer. (2Marks)

Ans: author does feels the matter of euthanasia less disturbing after he read somewhere that King George V of England died in 1936 after a lethat injection that Lord Dawson, the royal physician, administered.

(iv) What is the criteria to be observed when resorting to euthanasia as per the Royal Dutch Medical Association? How is it different from that of Oregon State? Which is better and why.

(5 Marks)

Ans: As per the Royal Dutch medical Association following criterion were to be established before resorting to euthanasia:

1. The patient’s explicit, persistent request on full information

2. Hopeless suffereing; absence of any alternative and the concurrence of a second physician.

(v) Give a title to the passage. Say why you decided on the title. (2 Marks)

Ans: Euthanasia, a gift for horribly disabled.

(vi) What are your own views about euthanasia? Write in about 50 words. (5 Marks)

Ans: It must be considered by the law making bodies of the world, since it becomes, at times unavoidable. The case may arise out of chronic illness, physical /mental disabilities for which cure does not exists.

Question 2:

Read the following letter and give a reply to it keeping in mind the following points: (10 Marks)

– Express regret

– Give a valid reason for not sending the books

– Say when you’ll send them by

– Suggest adequate compensation


English Language Learning

15, Civil Lines,

Delhi -110056

Tel: 011-22502308

Date: 25 August 2011

The Manager

Ashish Publishing House

5, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, Delhi 110002 011 2327 4050 ()

Dear Sir/Madam

On 23rd June I ordered 25 copies of ‘English in Use’ by A. L. Khanna to be sent to me at the above address.

Two months later, these books have not yet been received.

I would be grateful if you could look into this matter and ensure that the books reach me soon as possible.

Yours faithfully

Gorang Vinayak




Mr. Gorang Vinayak


English Language Learning

15, Civil Lines,

Delhi -110056

Tel: 011-22502308

Date : 28 August 2011

Subject : Regret for Dispatch delay

Dear Sir,

Sorry for the delay in dispatch of your order . There were some technical problems on our side due to which, several orders couldn’t be processed on time. So we are compensating by providing a discount of 15% on the Billed amount.

Your orders have been dispatched and would reach at your place by 30th this month.


Discount Voucher of 15 %, to be available for next purchase.




Ashish Publishing House

5, Ansari Road, Daryaganj,

New Delhi, Delhi 110002

Question 3: This is the beginning of a presentation on ‘mock interviews’. Complete it in about 100 words.

(10 Marks)

Mock Interview

Good Morning Ladies and Gentlemen.

All of us must have at some stage faced interviews and may have to do so at some point in life. This requires one to be well prepared. Many a time people opt for professional training to enhance communication skills and preparation for the interview. But if one doesn’t have the time and finances to support that, what does one do?

Herein lies the importance of mock interviews. They simulate an interview setting and train the person in facing the actual interview with confidence.
Ans : The success of many persons lie in their engagement with several sessions of mock interviews conducted time to time by various institutions. These interviews enables the aspirant to focus on his weakness and improve himself with the expert advice of the interviewers, so that when time comes for the real interview, he is confident enough to face it with a greater chance of success

Question 4: Use your imagination and creativity to complete the sentences in the mini-compositions below.

(10 Marks)

a) Students often wonder whether it’s worth attending special classes to improve their English.

I would say it depends on the interest of the student and how much he expects to learn the language

Some Students attend such classes just for fun or under influence of their friends

Others, however others show some interest considering the fact that English is a global language and a must nowadays.

In some ways in some ways, such classes develop some sort of interest among students to learn English

All in all, I think that such classes should be on regular basis.

b) There are many reasons why I love English language

One reason is that it makes very easy for one to communicate with people from all round the globe.

Another is that several nice literatures are available in English, which enables us to know the global scenarios in a better way

What is more awesome about this language is that it spreads ideas very effectively to a vast majority of people

Above all I consider that whole world should use this language in an effective manner to develop rapidly and steadily


Question 5:

Complete this paragraph filling up the gaps with suitable words from the box.

(15 Marks)

developimpact overcome conversation

influences shynessmaster professional

difficult recognize break start

discovered successful perceive

Small talk is crucial in any relationship. Everyday conversation can make or break relationships in our personal and professional lives. Unfortunately, most people don’t realize how important small talk is, and hence do not do anything to develop or improve this skill. Developing the ability to make small talk is not asdifficult as many other work related skills once we perceive its importance and worth.

A Stanford University School of Business study showed its impact on business success. It tracked MBA’s 10 years after graduation, and discovered that grade point averages had no bearing on their success – butconversation did. Most successful were those who could make conversation with anyone – from strangers, to secretaries, to bosses to customers.

Small talk has a great impact on your success in ‘personal’ relationships, because it influences how others see you in terms of intelligence and confidence. Most people recognise good conversationalists as more intelligent and confident.

Despite the importance of small talk, most people don’t do it well. One major reason is shyness and another common reason is not knowing how to start a conversation. There are also some who do not have anything to say. All of these difficulties can be overcome once you decide to master this art.

Question 6:

By dis-, im-, un-, in- and mis- to the words given below, form words of opposite meaning:(10 Marks) i understand vi judge xi sane Xvi Mature
ii agree vii movable xii clear Xvii courteous
iii audible viii comfort xiii necessary xviii conduct
iv voluntary ix rest xiv possible xix Behave
v continue X earthly xv pious xx Human


1. Misunderstand

2. Disagree

3. Inaudible

4. Involuntary

5. Discontinue

6. Misjudge

7. Unmovable

8. Discomfort

9. Unrest

10. Unearthly

11. Insane

12. Unclear

13. Unnecessary

14. Impossible

15. Impious

16. Immature

17. Discourteous

18. Misconduct

19. Misbehave

20. inhuman

Question 7:

Complete the sentences. Use must, mustn’t, and needn’t(5Marks)

i) He needs an injection before he goes on holiday.

He must make an appointment with the doctor.

ii) You can get your visa to Egypt in a day.

You mustn’t get it yet, as your trip is late next month.

iii) I need to go to London very early tomorrow.

needn’t stay up late.

iv) It isn’t necessary for her to check in at the airport at 6.30.

She needn’t check in until 7.00.

v) I’d like to do a little shopping on the way to the airport.

No, you mustn’t or you’ll miss your flight to New York.

Question 8:

Put the verbs given in brackets in the simple past tense: (15Marks)

One morning Akbar …………..(go) for a walk with Prince Salim and Birbal. After some time they ………..(come) to the bank of a river. It ………….(be) a hot morning and they ………..(sit) down in the shade of a tree. A few minutes later Akbar………..(say), “Shall we go and bathe in the river?” Birbal put his hand into the water and ………..(say), “I wouldn’t like to bathe.”

Akbar and Prince Salim ………..(take) off their clothes and ………….(give) them to Birbal. Then they ………..(get) into the water and……………(bathe) in it.

Akbar……….(say) to Prince Salim, “Birbal is standing in the sun and holding our clothes. He looks like a washerman’s donkey.” Akbar……………..(call) out to Birbal and ……………(say), ‘You’re carrying a donkey’s load.’ Birbal………….(bow) and very respectfully ………….(say), “No sir, I’m carrying the loads of two donkeys.”


1. Went

2. Came

3. Was

4. Sat

5. Said

6. Took

7. Gave

8. Got

9. Bathed

10. Said

11. Called

12. Said

13. Bowed

14. Said

Question 9:

Fill in the blanks with the prepositions of time such as: in, on, at, by, from,

for, during, until, to(5 Marks)

i) Electricity failed twice during the film show.

ii) Wait here until I come back.

iii) The shops are closed from Tuesday.

iv) She married at the age of 20.

v) There was no one to look after him in his old age.

vi) We had finished our homework by afternoon.

vii) We can walk this distance by an hour.

viii) He learnt to drive a car in the summer vacation.

ix) The shop remains open from 10am to 7pm.

x) I hope to finish the work by tomorrow.

IGNOU MBA MS-1 Free Solved Assignment 2012

1.  What are the essential components of an effectiveMIS and why? Describe the MIS of an organization, known to you or you arefamiliar with, giving detailed description and critically evaluate itseffectiveness. Briefly describe the organization, you are referring to.

Solution: Componentsof a marketing information system


A marketinginformation system (MIS) is intended to bring together disparate items of datainto a coherent body of information. An MIS is, as will shortly be seen, morethan raw data or information suitable for the purposes of decision making. AnMIS also provides methods for interpreting the information the MIS provides.Moreover, as Kotler’s1 definition says, an MIS is more than a system of datacollection or a set of information technologies:


“Amarketing information system is a continuing and interacting structure ofpeople, equipment and procedures to gather, sort, analyse, evaluate, anddistribute pertinent, timely and accurate information for use by marketingdecision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation, andcontrol”.

Figure belowdescribes the major components of an MIS, the environmental factors monitoredby the system and the types of marketing decision which the MIS seeks tounderpin.


Themarketing information systems and its subsystems




Theexplanation of this model of an MIS begins with a description of each of itsfour main constituent parts: the internal reporting systems, marketing researchsystem, marketing intelligence system and marketing models. It is suggestedthat whilst the MIS varies in its degree of sophistication – with many in theindustrialised countries being computerised and few in the developing countriesbeing so – a fully fledged MIS should have these components, the methods (andtechnologies) of collection, storing, retrieving and processing datanotwithstanding.


Internalreporting systems: All enterprises which have been in operation for any periodof time nave a wealth of information. However, this information often remainsunder-utilised because it is compartmentalised, either in the form of anindividual entrepreneur or in the functional departments of larger businesses.That is, information is usually categorised according to its nature so thatthere are, for example, financial, production, manpower, marketing,stockholding and logistical data. Often the entrepreneur, or various personnelworking in the functional departments holding these pieces of data, do not seehow it could help decision makers in other functional areas. Similarly,decision makers can fail to appreciate how information from other functionalareas might help them and therefore do not request it.


Theinternal records that are of immediate value to marketing decisions are: ordersreceived, stockholdings and sales invoices. These are but a few of the internalrecords that can be used by marketing managers, but even this small set ofrecords is capable of generating a great deal of information



2.                  State and explain the importance of Mission, Vision, Objectives, andStrategy in the functioning of an organization. Find out these statements of afew organizations and explain their significance. How do they help youunderstand about these organizations? Describe with brief details of theorganization you are referring to.


Solution:  Settingof organizational objectives is the starting point of managerial actions. An organization’send results for which an organization strives is termed as “mission”, purpose,objective, goal, target etc. Many times these terms are used interchangeably asall these denote end results.




A Mission Statement defines the organization’s purposeand primary objectives. Its prime function is internal – to define the keymeasure or measures of the organization’s success – and its prime audience isthe leadership team and stockholders. Mission statements are the startingpoints of an organisation’s strategic planning and goal setting process. Theyfocus attention and assure that internal and external stakeholders understandwhat the organization is attempting to accomplish.




Mission and purpose are used interchangeably, though attheoretical level, there is a difference between two. Mission has externalorientation and relates the organization to the society in which it operates. Amission statement helps the organization to link its activities to the needs ofthe society and legitimize its existence. Purpose is also externally focusedbut it relates to that segment of the society to which it serves; it definesthe business which the institution will undertake.


Dimensions of Mission statements:


According to Bart, the strongest organizational impactoccurs when mission statements contain 7 essential dimensions.


Key values and beliefs


Distinctive competence


Desired competitive position


Competitive strategy


Compelling goal/vision


Specific customers served and products or servicesoffered


Concern for satisfying multiple stakeholders


According to Vern McGinis, a mission should:


Define what the company is


Define what the company aspires to be


Limited to exclude some ventures


Broad enough to allow for creative growth


Distinguish the company from all others


Serve as framework to evaluate current activities


Stated clearly so that it is understood by all


Developing a Mission Statement


Structure of a mission statement


The following elements can be included in a missionstatement. Their sequence can be different. It is important, however, that someelements supporting the accomplishment of the mission be present and not justthe mission as a “wish” or dream.


Purpose and values of the organization (products orservices, market) or who are the organization’s primary “clients”(stakeholders)


What are the responsibilities of the organization towardsthese “clients”


What are the main objectives supporting the company inaccomplishing its mission


A mission statement explains the company’s core purposeand values.



1.   At is mostbasic, the mission statement describes the overall purpose of the organization.


2. If the organization elects to develop a visionstatement before developing the mission statement, ask “Why does the image, thevision exist — what is it’s purpose?” This purpose is often the same as themission.


3. Developing a mission statement can be quickculture-specific, i.e., participants may use methods ranging from highlyanalytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., focuseddiscussions, divergent experiences around daydreams, sharing stories, etc.Therefore, visit with the participants how they might like to arrive atdescription of their organizational mission.


4. When wording the mission statement, consider theorganization’s products, services, markets, values, and concern for publicimage, and maybe priorities of activities for survival.


5. Consider any changes that may be needed in wording ofthe mission statement because of any new suggested strategies during a recentstrategic planning process.


6. Ensure that wording of the mission is to the extentthat management and employees can infer some order of priorities in howproducts and services are delivered.


7. When refining the mission, a useful exercise is to addor delete a word from the mission to realize the change in scope of the missionstatement and assess how concise is its wording.


8. Does the mission statement include sufficientdescription that the statement clearly separates the mission of theorganization from other organizations?


Mission Statementsof Well Known Enterprises


“To solve unsolved problems innovatively” -MaryKay Cosmetics

“To make people happy.” – Walt Disney




Vision statements reflect the ideal image of theorganization in the future. They create a focal point for strategic planningand are time bound, with most vision statements projected for a period of 5 to10 years.  The vision statementcommunicates both the purpose and values of the organization. For employees, itgives direction about how they are expected to behave and inspires them to givetheir best. Shared with customers, it shapes customers’ understanding of whythey should work with the organization.


Developing a Vision Statement



1.   The visionstatement includes vivid description of the organization as it effectivelycarries out its operations.


2. Developing a vision statement can be quickculture-specific, i.e., participants may use methods ranging from highlyanalytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., focused discussions,divergent experiences around daydreams, sharing stories, etc. Therefore, visitwith the participants how they might like to arrive at description of theirorganizational vision.


3. Developing the vision can be the most enjoyable partof planning, but the part where time easily gets away from you.


4. Note that originally, the vision was a compellingdescription of the state and function of the organization once it hadimplemented the strategic plan, i.e., a very attractive image toward which theorganization was attracted and guided by the strategic plan. Recently, thevision has become more of a motivational tool, too often including highlyidealistic phrasing and activities which the organization cannot realisticallyaspire.




Value statements define the organisation’s basicphilosophy, principles and ideals. They also set the ethical tone for theinstitution. An organisation’s values are evident in the statements that definethe organization and the processes used to achieve its mission and vision.


Developing a Values Statement



1. Values represent the core priorities in theorganization’s culture, including what drives members’ priorities and how theytruly act in the organization, etc. Values are increasingly important instrategic planning. They often drive the intent and direction for “organic”planners.


2. Developing a values statement can be quickculture-specific, i.e., participants may use methods ranging from highlyanalytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., focuseddiscussions, divergent experiences around daydreams, sharing stories, etc.Therefore, visit with the participants how they might like to arrive atdescription of their organizational values.


3. Establish four to six core values from which theorganization would like to operate. Consider values of customers, shareholders,employees and the community.


4. Notice any differences between the organization’spreferred values and its true values (the values actually reflected by members’behaviors in the organization).


5. Incorporate into the strategic plan, actions to alignactual behavior with preferred behaviors.




Objectives are the ends toward which activity isaimed-they are the end results to ward which activity is aimed.


“Objectives are goals, aims or purposes thatorganizations wish over varying periods of time”-McFarland


“A managerial objective is the intended goal thatprescribes definite scope and suggests direction to the planning efforts of amanger”-Terry and Franklin






Must be clearly specified


Must be set taking into account the various factorsaffecting their achievement


Should be consistent with organizational mission


Should be rational and realistic rather than idealistic


Should be achievable but must provide challenge to thoseresponsible for achievement


Should start with “to” and be followed by an action verb


Should be consistent over the period of time


Should be periodically reviewed


Should have hierarchy


Organisational objectives


Should have social sanction


An organization may have multiple objectives


Can be changed




Each organization or group of  individuals have some objectives


Objectives may be broad or they may be specificallymentioned


Objectives may be clearly defined


Objectives have hierarchy.


Organisational objectives have social sanction, that is,they are created within the social norms.


An organisation may have multiple objectives.


Organisationalobjectives can be changed


To define anorganization


To providedirections for decision making


To set standardsof performance


To provide a basisfor decentralization


Integrateorganization, group and individual



3.                  What are the essential components /indicators/ Determinants ofOrganizational Climate and Organisational Culture? Take example of twoorganizations, list out the component /indicators/ dimensions of their climateand culture and explain their corresponding perceived major focus, withexample. Briefly describe the organizations you are referring to.


Solution:   This study aimed to determine the dimensionsof organizational climate within four- and five-star hotels and to assesswhether these dimensions vary significantly across hotels. Jones and James’sclimate survey was shortened, modified to incorporate the psychometricimprovements of Ryder and Southey, and tailored for specific use within hotels.The survey was administered to 1,401 employees from 14 hotels and provided ahigh index of reliability (a = .959). From items representing 35 a prioriconcepts, principal components analysis identified seven dimensions, which werelabeled leader facilitation and support; professional and organizationalesprit; conflict and ambiguity; regulations, organization, and pressure; jobvariety, challenge, and autonomy; job standards; and workgroup cooperation,friendliness, and warmth. Univariate analyses found each of the dimensions tovary significantly across the 14 hotels.


Inmanagement  literature there is oftenambiguity about the two concepts – organisational culture and

organisationalclimate. As explained earlier, organisational culture is a macro  phenomenon which refers to the patterns  of beliefs, assumptions, values, and  behaviours reflecting commonality in peopleworking together. However,  organisationalclimate is a micro phenomenon and reflects how employees in an

organisationfeel about the characteristics and quality of culture like morale,  goodwill, employee relations, jobsatisfaction, commitmrnt at the organisational, department or unit level. It refers to the psychological enviornment inwhich  behaviour of organisationalmembers occurs. It is a relatively persistent set of

perceptionsheld by organisational members about the organisational culture. Anotherviewpoint about climate is that various variables get subsumed under theconcept of  climate, whereas has uniqueindicators like symbols, rites, myths, and stories.


DanielDenison’s model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described byfour general dimensions – Mission, Adaptability, Involvement and Consistency.Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following threesub-dimensions:

Mission -Strategic Direction and Intent, Goals and Objectives and Vision

Adaptability- Creating Change, Customer Focus and Organizational Learning

Involvement- Empowerment, Team Orientation and Capability Development

Consistency- Core Values, Agreement, Coordination/Integration.


TheParadigm: What the organization is about; what it does; its mission; itsvalues.

ControlSystems: The processes in place to monitor what is going on. Role cultureswould have vast rulebooks. There would be more reliance on individualism in apower culture.

OrganizationalStructures: Reporting lines, hierarchies, and the way that work flows throughthe business.

PowerStructures: Who makes the decisions, how widely spread is power, and on what ispower based?

Symbols:These include organizational logos and designs, but also extend to symbols ofpower such as parking spaces and executive washrooms.

Rituals andRoutines: Management meetings, board reports and so on may become more habitualthan necessary. Stories and Myths: build up about people and events, and conveya message about what is valued within the organization. These elements mayoverlap. Power structures may depend on control systems, which may exploit thevery rituals that generate stories which may not be true.





4.                  What are the element of an organization structure, and the factorsinfluencing its choice? Take example of two organizations and explain withlogic as to how are their structures suited to their requirements or influencedby the other factors.


Solution:  Elements of organizationalstructure give companies effective and efficient ways to run their businesses,manage their employees and ensure that tasks are completed. Elements such aswork specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control,centralization, decentralization and formalization make up organizationalstructure. Each element impacts how employees interact with each other toaccomplish company goals and objectives.



Workspecialization ensures that each employee has a set of specific duties they’reexpected to perform based on their work experience, education and skills. Itprevents employees from being expected to perform tasks for which they have noprevious experience or training.


Thedepartmentalization element breaks down how jobs are grouped together to createdepartments. Departments are created based on the types of jobs employeesperform, the products or brands they’re assigned to, geographical locations orcustomer needs.

Chain ofCommand

In acompany, each employee is expected to report to one manager, rather than toseveral. Mangers are responsible for assigning tasks, informing employees ofexpectations and deadlines and offering motivation. Managers are also availableto answer job-related questions from employees and handle conflicts withintheir departments. Employees are responsible for completing duties assigned tothem by their manager accurately and in a timely fashion.

Span ofControl

Span ofcontrol suggests how many employees each manager can handle within anorganization. This element of organizational structure also outlines the numberof mangers an organization needs, which is typically determined based on thenumber of employees and departments a company has.

Centralizationand Decentralization

In acentralized organization, all decisions are made by c-level managers such asthe chief executive officer, chief operating officer and chief marketingofficer. Centralization leaves department managers with little to no input.This system is typical in larger, corporate organizations.

Adecentralized system affords all managers the opportunity to give input, whilebigger decisions are still made by c-level managers.


Formalizationis the element that outlines employee roles within a workplace, as defined bythe rules and guidelines developed by management. Formalization determineswhether employees have to sign in and out upon arriving and exiting the office,frequency and length of breaks, computer usage and dress code.


Factors Affecting OrganizationalStructure

Organizationalstructure is the framework companies use to outline their authority andcommunication processes. The framework usually includes policies, rules andresponsibilities for each individual in the organization. Several factorsaffect the organizational structure of a company. These factors can be internalor external. Small business owners must be responsible for creating theircompanies organizational structure framework. Business owners may use amanagement consultant or review information from the Small BusinessAdministration before setting up their organizational structure.


Size ismany times the driving factor for a company’s organizationalstructure. Smaller or home-based businesses do not usually have a vaststructure because the business owner is usually responsible for all tasks.Larger business organizations usually require a more intense framework fortheir organizational structure. Companies with more employees usually requiremore managers for supervising these individuals. Highly specialized businessoperations can also require a more formal organizational structure.

Life Cycle

Thecompany’s life cycle also plays an important part in the developmentof an organizational structure. Business owners attempting to grow and expandtheir company’s operations usually develop an organizationalstructure to outline their company’s business mission and goals.Businesses reaching peak performance usually become more mechanical in theirorganizational structure. This occurs as the chain of command increases from thebusiness owner down to frontline employees. Mature companies usually focus ondeveloping an organizational structure to improve efficiency and profitability.These improvements may be the result of more competitors entering the economicmarketplace.


Businessstrategies can also be a factor in a company’s organizationalstructure development. High-growth companies usually have smallerorganizational structures so they can react to changes in the businessenvironment quicker than other companies. Business owners may also be reluctantto give up managerial control in business operations. Small businesses stilllooking to define their business strategy often delay creating anorganizational structure. Business owners are usually more interested in settingbusiness strategies rather than developing and implementing an internalbusiness structure.


Theexternal business environment can also play an important part in acompany’s organizational structure. Dynamic environments withconstantly changing consumer desires or behavior is often more turbulent thanstable environments. Companies attempting to meet consumer demand can strugglewhen creating an organizational structure in a dynamic environment. More timeand capital can also be spent in dynamic environments attending to create andorganizational structure. This additional capital is usually a negative




5.                  Why do groups get formed? What are the stages of group formation? Explainthe formation of a group and relate it to the stages with brief description ofpurpose and structure of the group, as you are aware of. Also briefly describethe organization, if this group was the part of it.


Solution: The formation of a groupand relate it to the stages with brief description of purpose and structure ofthe group mention below:

Stage 1:Forming

In theForming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Groupmembers rely

on safe,patterned behavior and look to the group leader for guidance and direction.Group

membershave a desire for acceptance by the group and a need to be know that the groupis safe.

They setabout gathering impressions and data about the similarities and differencesamong them

and formingpreferences for future subgrouping. Rules of behavior seem to be to keep things

simple andto avoid controversy. Serious topics and feelings are avoided.

The majortask functions also concern orientation. Members attempt to become oriented tothe

tasks aswell as to one another. Discussion centers around defining the scope of thetask, how to

approachit, and similar concerns. To grow from this stage to the next, each member must

relinquishthe comfort of non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict.


Stage 2:Storming

The nextstage, called Storming, is characterized by competition and conflict in thepersonalrelations dimension an organization in the task-functions dimension. Asthe group members

attempt toorganize for the task, conflict inevitably results in their personal relations.Individuals

have tobend and mold their feelings, ideas, attitudes, and beliefs to suit the grouporganization.

Because of”fear of exposure” or “fear of failure,” there will be anincreased desire for structural

clarificationand commitment. Although conflicts may or may not surface as group issues, they

do exist.Questions will arise about who is going to be responsible for what, what therules are,

what thereward system is, and what criteria for evaluation are. These reflect conflictsover

leadership,structure, power, and authority. There may be wide swings in members’ behavior

based onemerging issues of competition and hostilities. Because of the discomfortgenerated

during thisstage, some members may remain completely silent while others attempt todominate.

In order toprogress to the next stage, group members must move from a “testing andproving”

mentalityto a problem-solving mentality. The most important trait in helping groups tomove on

to the nextstage seems to be the ability to listen.


Stage 3:Norming

In theNorming stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Groupmembers are

engaged inactive acknowledgment of all members’ contributions, community building and

maintenance,and solving of group issues. Members are willing to change theirpreconceived

ideas or opinionson the basis of facts presented by other members, and they actively ask

questionsof one another. Leadership is shared, and cliques dissolve. When members beginto

1 know-andidentify with-one another, the level of trust in their personal relationscontributes to

thedevelopment of group cohesion. It is during this stage of development (assumingthe group

gets thisfar) that people begin to experience a sense of group belonging and a feelingof relief as

a result ofresolving interpersonal conflicts.

The majortask function of stage three is the data flow between group members: They share

feelingsand ideas, solicit and give feedback to one another, and explore actionsrelated to the

task.Creativity is high. If this stage of data flow and cohesion is attained by thegroup members,

theirinteractions are characterized by openness and sharing of information on both apersonal

and tasklevel. They feel good about being part of an effective group.

The majordrawback of the norming stage is that members may begin to fear the inevitablefuture

breakup ofthe group; they may resist change of any sort.


Stage 4:Performing

ThePerforming stage is not reached by all groups. If group members are able to evolveto stage

four, theircapacity, range, and depth of personal relations expand to trueinterdependence. In this

stage,people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit with equalfacility. Their

roles andauthorities dynamically adjust to the changing needs of the group andindividuals.

Stage fouris marked by interdependence in personal relations and problem solving in therealm

of taskfunctions. By now, the group should be most productive. Individual members have

becomeself-assuring, and the need for group approval is past. Members are both highlytask

orientedand highly people oriented. There is unity: group identity is complete, groupmorale is

high, andgroup loyalty is intense. The task function becomes genuine problem solving,leading

towardoptimal solutions and optimum group development. There is support forexperimentation

in solvingproblems and an emphasis on achievement. The overall goal is productivitythrough

problemsolving and work.


Stage 5:Adjourning

The finalstage, Adjourning, involves the termination of task behaviors and disengagementfrom

relationships.A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and

achievementand an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes. Concluding a group can

create someapprehension – in effect, a minor crisis. The termination of the group is aregressive

movementfrom giving up control to giving up inclusion in the group. The most effective

interventionsin this stage are those that facilitate task termination and the disengagement





IGNOU ASP-01 Free Solved Assignment 2012

1. A private secretary isexpected, if necessary, to sacrifice his personal interest for his

employer.” Elaborate.

Solution: Yes private secretary is expected to sacrifice his personal interestfor his

Employer. Below are the roleplayed by private secretary to make his Employer Satisfied: A private secretary is asenior position in a company or public organisation, normally in the form of amanagerial position or above. In the United States it is known as a corporatesecretary. The Private Secretary isresponsible for the efficient administration of a company, particularly withregard to ensuring compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements andfor ensuring that decisions of the Board of Directors are implemented.

Despitethe name, the role is not a clerical or secretarial one in the usual sense.


The privatesecretary ensures that an organization complies with relevant legislation andregulation, and keeps board members informed of their legal responsibilities. PrivateSecretaries are the company’s named representative on legal documents, and itis their responsibility to ensure that the company and its directors operatewithin the law. It is also their responsibility to register and communicatewith shareholders, to ensure that dividends are paid and to maintain companyrecords, such as lists of directors and shareholders, and annual accounts.

In manycountries, private companies have traditionally been required by law to appointone person as a private secretary, and this person will also usually be asenior board member.


Youcould incur fines or even criminal charges for failure to file the AnnualReturn. You could, potentially, be disqualified , prosecuted or made liable forcompany debts if the law is broken. You could be subject to criminalproceedings, if the company trades fraudulently, or if company funds aremisappropriated. If you are also a director, you could be held personallyliable for the company’s debts, if there has been wrongful trading. Failure toensure that the directors are acting properly in the conduct of the businesscould leave you with personal responsibility for its debts.


2. What do you mean by ameeting? What are the requisites for conducting a valid meeting? Also explainthe importance of the agenda of a meeting.

Solution: Initial talk between twoindividuals whether or not previously acquainted where an effort is made toask, plan and organize some sort of social activity. Talking can vary betweencultures, lifestyles, religion, gender, and sexual orientation. In manycountries and cultures it is the process that romantic relationships aredeveloped and future spouses are found. Often, people are set up on dates bytheir friends, or they meet the individual at work, a party, or in class isknown as Meeting.


Requisites of a ValidMeetings:-

Thefollowing conditions must be satisfied for a meeting to be called a validmeeting :-

It mustbe properly convened. The persons calling the meeting must be authorised to doso.

Properand adequate notice must have been given to all those entitled to attend.

Themeeting must be legally constituted. There maust be a chairperson. The rules ofquorum must be maintained and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and thearticles must be complied with. The business at the meeting must be validlytransacted..


The importance of an agendaof a meeting:

Themeeting must be conducted in accordance with the regulations governing themeetings. It probably seems obvious to most that meeting agendas are importantfor timing purposes. An agenda keeps a meeting from going too long and keeps ameeting on topic. At its most basic, an agenda lists the timetable for topics,activities and speakers within the pre-established time frame of the meeting.But lately I suspect there is more to meeting agendas than I first thought.


Theimportance of an agenda starts even before the meeting takes place. When weschedule a meeting, we should also send the agenda. This accomplishes thefollowing:

Everyoneattending the meeting is able to prepare appropriately. Supplying attendeeswith just a time, place, and meeting topic gives no one a chance to bring orreview relevant documents, prepare status reports on action items, or suggestagenda changes to the one calling the meeting.

Writingthe agenda helps focus our thoughts and strategy regarding the meeting beforethe meeting takes place. Leaving out this step can create meetings withunfocused goals, meandering topics, and stream of consciousness likecommunication from us, the meeting facilitator.

A briefverbal review of the agenda at the start of the meeting reinforces themeeting’s goals to everyone attending. This review also gives the us a base onwhich to fall back on when the meeting drifts off topic and a way to bookendthe meeting along with a recap of the meetings goals at the end. This briefreview of the agenda at the start of the meeting also helps focus us when westart our meetings.


Formeetings that are following a presentation format, instead of a discussionformat, the importance of an agenda is lessened. However, in that case, sendingout a short description of the presentation can help people make a moreeducated choice regarding their attendance when a scheduling conflict mightexist.




3. (a) Explain thearrangement of a business letter.

Solution: Depending on the purpose ofyour business letter, there are several formats from which you can choose. Themost widely used business letter formats are full block, alternate block,modified block, and memo. Remember, the format of the letter helps to establishits tone.




This is the most modern of the formats and theone most widely used; its clean direct look lends itself well to technicalcommunication, and its simple vertical format tends to reduce the error ratesince you simply do not have to be concerned about horizontal spacing toindicate new paragraphs.


EightComponents of Full Block Format

1. Theheading includes the date the letter is written. If you do not use letterheadstationery, you need to include your address over the date.


2. Theaddress above the salutation is the letter recipient’s full address. This addressshould match the address on the envelope.


3. Thesalutation is the line that begins “Dear…” Use Mr. for men and Ms.for women. Try to obtain a name to whom you can address your letter. If youcannot obtain a name, you should use “To Whom It May Concern” as asalutation. You can also include an attention line two spaces down from therecipient’s address as well as a subject line (if necessary):


Attention:Technical Director

Subject:Purchase Order #41763


4. Thebody of your letter contains the text of your message.


5. Thecomplimentary close should appear two lines below the last line of the body, atthe left margin. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and alwaysend the line with a comma. You can use a variety of closures including Yourstruly, Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Best regards or Best wishes.


6. Yoursignature should be in blue or black ink. Allow four vertical spaces for yoursignature.


7. Theidentification line contains your typed name, and, if you have one, your title.Depending on the purpose of the letter, you can position your phone number orsocial security number in place of your title.


8.Enclosures or distribution of the letter is placed two vertical spaces belowthe identification line.




895 North Main Street                   |

Bowling Green, OH 43402                 |– HEADING


February 16, 1994          _____________|


Ms. Maria Reinaldo                      |

Customer Relations                      |

Ohio Telephone Company                  |– ADDRESS

133 Buckley Street                      |

Columbus, OH 43217         _____________|


Dear Ms. Reinaldo:         _____________|–SALUTATION


|   Ireceived a collection notice from the Ohio Telephone Company

|   onFebruary 13, 1994.  The letter statesthat I owe a past due

|  balance from the September 16 to October 16 billing period in

|  1993.  The letter also states thatmy service will be

|  disconnected unless I act immediately; however, I am now

|  informing you for the second time that I paid that bill on

|  January 1st, 1994.


|   OnJanuary 15th, I received a call from one of your

|  representatives about this matter, and I immediately told him

|   thatapproximately two weeks ago I sent a check to your office

|   forthe due amount of $132.57. Unfortunately, I failed to get

|   hisname.  I am irritated that you have nottaken care of this

|  matter since I have the canceled check in my possession, and

|   I amenclosing a copy of it herewith.

|   Ihope that this will settle the matter once and for all.

|_                            _____________

Sincerely yours,          _____________|–COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE




Bill Moritz               _____________|–IDENTIFICATIONLINE

(419) 352-5555            _____________|–TITLE OR PHONENUMBER


Encl: copy of canceled check   ________|–ENCLOSURES OR




The only difference between the alternateblock and the full block is that the alternate block has a subject line. Thesubject line can save time for the receiver by informing her/him of the purposeof the letter. The subject line is situated between the recipient’s address andthe opening salutation. Skip two vertical lines down from the address and skipanother two vertical lines before the salutation.



895North Main Street

BowlingGreen, OH 43402


February16, 1994


Ms.Maria Reinaldo


OhioTelephone Company

133Buckley Street

Columbus,OH 43217

SUBJECT:Collection notice of February 13, 1994


Dear Ms.Reinaldo:


(Theremainder of the letter is exactly the same as the full block format.)




Modified block format differs from full blockin the placement of the heading, date, complimentary close, signature, andidentification lines. These components should all start about halfway acrossthe page, and be aligned vertically. The sample also shows that you begin theparagraphs of a modified block letter with a one-tab or three to five spaceindentation. You should retain the vertical doublespace between paragraphs.Although businesses seem to prefer full block format, modified block isacceptable. Many people consider the modified block’s appearance more balancedand traditional.



123Corina Blvd.

Flushing,NY 11235


July 27,1994





115Eiken Street

NewYork, NY 10009




Subject:Article written by Ms. Tutenberg on June 30




On June 30, 1994, you published an article bythe author Mary Tutenberg, which I found to be very disturbing. Finally,President Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton are getting closer to providing Americanswith an opportunity to receive health care regardless of age, sexualorientation or economic status. But Ms. Tutenberg does not want to see thesehealth care reforms take place, and so she makes it her ambition to use thehealth care issue as an opportunity to unjustly attack homosexuals with AIDs,claiming that “the health care plan is nothing but a disguised liberalplot to bring homosexuality and other such deviant behavior into the mainstream.”


Being a homosexual, I find Ms. Tutenberg’shomophobic commentary to be extremely offensive, misinformed and unenlightened.To blame any disease on a particular group of people or to punish people forthe disease they have contracted is destructive to all Americans bothspiritually and physically. In the past, I have purchased your magazine becauseI found it to be very informative: a magazine that views contemporary issuesobjectively. If you continue to include such moral majority bigots as Ms.Tutenberg, I will stop buying Popona — and so will a lot of other people.



Mr. Wallace Davis

Registered Nurse

cc: Ms. Tutenberg



(b) Write a letter to thesupplier complaining about the supply of defective goods.



Dear Sir(IICT Manufacturer)


Subject:Faulty Laptop


This isto bring to your kind notice that the IICT Laptop

doesn’twork and it is not up to the expectations. I am sorry to inform you that it isthe third product that I’ve had to return this month (see attachedcorrespondence).


I wouldlike to inform you that I bought the product from the Nirmal Shop at FifthAvenue Complex, Ahmadabad on 15 February 2012. I must inform you that Icarefully followed all the instructions for use. However, except these Laptop thatI have had to return, I have been otherwise completely satisfied with your Laptop.


I wouldbe grateful if you could send a replacement and refund my postage (28,000)

I willreally appreciate your help.







4. Distinguish between thefollowing:

(a) Motion and Resolution

Solution: Resolutions

Aresolution in a corporate meeting is a written statement that is reviewed bythe board prior to a board meeting. When a resolution is reached in a boardmeeting, it is recorded in the board’s minutes by writing the words”resolved that” followed by the issue resolved. A resolution is alegally binding decision made by the board.



Motionsare used to make group decisions. A motion is a proposal made by one member atthe meeting. If another member agrees to the motion, a second motion is made.The president of the organization asks if all members are in favor and if thereis anyone who opposes the motion. If no one opposes it, the motion is carriedthrough and a decision is made. Motioning issues takes place one issue at atime. Another issue is not discussed until the previous one is closed.



(b) Attendance and Quorum

Solution:  A quorum is the minimum number of members ofa deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as alegislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group. According toRobert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, Tenth Edition, the current edition ofRobert’s Rules of Order, the “requirement for a quorum is protectionagainst totally unrepresentative action in the name of the body by an undulysmall number of persons.

The termquorum is from a Middle English wording of the commission formerly issued tojustices of the peace, derived from Latin quorum, “of whom”, genitiveplural of qui = “who”


Membershipof Boards of Examiners

1.Membership of boards of examiners is set out in Section 6.1.1-2.


2. It isthe normal expectation that all members of the board of examiners will attendmeetings, particularly those held to finalise awards.


3. Goodreason for non-attendance will be presented to the chair of the board ofexaminers.


4. Allabsences should be recorded in the minutes of the board.


5. Inorder to be quorate a meeting of a subject board of Examiners must havepresent:


a. thechair of the board of examiners;


b. thesecretary of the board of examiners;


c. allthe external examiners;


d. wherethe secretary to the board of examiners is a member of academic staff:  internal members of the board of examinersequal to number of appointed external examiners, plus one; where the secretaryto the board of examiners is not a member of academic staff:  internal members of the board of examinersequal to number of appointed external examiners, plus two.


6.Attendance requirements for external examiners are defined in Section 6.2.2,paragraphs 6 to 12.


7. If anexternal examiner is unable to attend a meeting of the board of examiners atwhich his/her presence is required, the chair of the board of examiners mustseek approval from the chair of the relevant Faculty Education Committee.


8.Before any such permission will be granted, the chair of the relevant FacultyEducation Committee will need to be satisfied that the absence of the externalexaminer is unavoidable, that steps have been taken (as far as possibledepending on the nature of the problem causing the absence) to ensure that theexternal examiner has been consulted and that the external examiner issatisfied with the arrangements for the meeting of the board.


9. Underno circumstances is it permitted to hold meetings of boards of examiners byemail.


FacultyPreliminary Board of Examiners

10. Themembership is as follows:


a. thechair of the relevant Faculty Education Committee (Undergraduate) (Chair);


b.Deputy Head (Natural Sciences) / Director of Combined Honours (Art &Humanities and Social Sciences & Health) or their deputy;


c. Secretary;


d. twofurther members of the faculty concerned nominated and appointed by EC;


e. onemember of another faculty nominated and appointed by EC


11. Thequorum is the membership above less one member.


12. Thesecretary to the Preliminary Board of Examiners does not have voting rights inthe board.





(c) Report and Precise

Solution: coming soon..



(d) Money Order and PostalOrder

Solution: You need to buy a moneyorder from a post office if the person whom you ordered an item insists onhaving it rather than a cheque. Money order is available from post offices uponpayment of the value of the money order plus commission that is applicable. Amoney order is as good as cash, which is why many traders prefer it over chequethat takes longer to get cleared, and also has a chance of being dishonoredsometimes.

Interestinglymoney order is not an invention of any government or post office. It wasintroduced by a private firm in UK in 18th century, but fees being charged weretoo high thus, not making it successful. Later, post office overtook thesystem, and reduced the commission, making money orders very popular.


Postalorder is also called postal money order, and is frequently used by people tosend money inside envelopes. They are similar to cheques when crossed butbecome as good as cash when uncrossed. This is because a crossed postal orderneeds to be deposited in the bank account of the recipient, whereas anuncrossed postal order can be cashed by anyone.


While amoney order and a postal order are often considered to be the same type offinancial instrument, there are a couple of subtle differences between the two.Those differences focus on where the instruments are obtained, where they maybe tendered for cash, and who will accept each of the instruments as a form ofpayment. In some nations, the level of risk associated with a money order and apostal order also creates an additional distinction between the two.


One ofthe chief differences between a money order and a postal order has to do withwhere the instruments may be purchased. A postal order is purchased directlyfrom a national postal system, such as the US Postal Service or the Post Officein the United Kingdom. By contrast, a money order is produced by an independentfinancial service provider and may be purchased at any number of retailoutlets, including supermarkets or drugstores.





5. Write short notes on thefollowing:

(a) Amendment

Solution: Coming soon..



(b) Company meetings

Solution: Meetings concern everyorganisation. They concern most of the companies registered under the

CompaniesAct because every company has to hold a variety of meetings during itslifetime. While board, committee and annual general meetings are of regularoccurrence, other meetings are of occasional occurrence. The rigmarole ofconvening and conduct of meetings, and the post-meeting formalities, involve agreat deal of work that every private secretary and her/his staff has to attendto. This is equally true of the company which does not have a qualified privatesecretary. Meetings are governed by the statute and the articles of associationof the company and, therefore, complying with the requirements under them is avital duty of a private secretary. This is more rigorous in listed companiesowing to additional obligations under the listing agreement. Sometimes meetingsare also impacted by shareholders’ agreement or other documents.



(c) Public relations in acompany

Solution: Public relations (PR) isthe practice of managing the flow of information between an organization andits publics. Public relations provides an organization or individual exposureto their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do notrequire direct payment.

Theiraim is often to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees and otherstakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about the company, itsleadership, products or of political decisions. Common activities includespeaking at conferences, winning industry awards, working with the press, andemployee communication



(d) Postal services

Solution: A postal services is afacility forming part of a postal system for the posting, receipt, sorting,handling, transmission or delivery of mail.[1]

Postoffices offer mail-related services such as postal services boxes, postage andpackaging supplies. In addition, some post offices offer non-postal servicessuch as passport applications and other government forms, car tax purchase,money orders, and banking services. A postal services may have a main customerservice and point of sale area and many offices were directlyassigned[clarification needed] to Postal code, ZIP code.

In a”sorting office” or “delivery office”, mail is sorted orprocessed for delivery. Large open spaces for sorting mail are also sometimesknown as a sorting hall or postal hall. Over time, sophisticated mail sortingand delivery equipment has been developed, including Mail Rail.